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Models of Human Information Requirements: "When Reasonable Aiding Systems Disagree"Aircraft flight management and Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation are under development to maximize the economy of flight and to increase the capacity of the terminal area airspace while maintaining levels of flight safety equal to or better than current system performance. These goals are being realized by the introduction of flight management automation aiding and operations support systems on the flight deck and by new developments of ATC aiding systems that seek to optimize scheduling of aircraft while potentially reducing required separation and accounting for weather and wake vortex turbulence. Aiding systems on both the flight deck and the ground operate through algorithmic functions on models of the aircraft and of the airspace. These models may differ from each other as a result of variations in their models of the immediate environment. The resultant flight operations or ATC commands may differ in their response requirements (e.g. different preferred descent speeds or descent initiation points). The human operators in the system must then interact with the automation to reconcile differences and resolve conflicts. We have developed a model of human performance including cognitive functions (decision-making, rule-based reasoning, procedural interruption recovery and forgetting) that supports analysis of the information requirements for resolution of flight aiding and ATC conflicts. The model represents multiple individuals in the flight crew and in ATC. The model is supported in simulation on a Silicon Graphics' workstation using Allegro Lisp. Design guidelines for aviation automation aiding systems have been developed using the model's specification of information and team procedural requirements. Empirical data on flight deck operations from full-mission flight simulation are provided to support the model's predictions. The paper describes the model, its development and implementation, the simulation test of the model predictions, and the empirical validation process. The model and its supporting data provide a generalizable tool that is being expanded to include air/ground compatibility and ATC crew interactions in air traffic management.
Document ID
Document Type
Preprint (Draft being sent to journal)
Corker, Kevin (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA United States)
Pisanich, Gregory (Sterling Software, Inc. Moffett Field, CA United States)
Shafto, Michael
Date Acquired
August 20, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1994
Subject Category
Aircraft Communications and Navigation
Meeting Information
Computer-Based Human Support Systems: Technology, Methods and Future(Philadelphia, PA)
Funding Number(s)
PROJECT: RTOP 538-04-11
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.