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Effects of Surface Oxygen on the Performance of Carbon as an Anode in Lithium-Ion BatteriesCarbon materials with similar bulk structure but different surface oxygen were compared for their performance as anodes in lithium-ion battery. The bulk structure was such that the graphene planes were perpendicular to the surface. Three types of surfaces were examined: surface containing C=O type oxygen. surface containing -O-C type oxygen, and surface containing high concentration of active sites. The test involved cycles of lithium insertion into and release from the carbon materials, which was in the half cells of carbon/saturated LiI-50/50 (vol %) EC and DMC/lithium. During the first cycle of lithium insertion, the presence of adsorbed oxygen, -O-C type oxygen, active carbon sites, and C=O type oxygen resulted in the formation of solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) when the carbon's voltage relative to lithium metal was >1.35, 1 to 1.35, 0.5 to 1, and 0.67 to 0.7 V, respectively. An optimum -O-C type oxygen and a minimum C=O type oxygen was found to increase the reversible and decrease the irreversible capacity of carbon. Active sites on the carbon surface result in a large irreversible capacity and a second lithium insertion-release mechanism. However, this new mechanism has a short cycle life.
Document ID
Document Type
Technical Memorandum (TM)
Hung, Ching-Cheh
(NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH United States)
Clark, Gregory W.
(Manchester Coll. North Manchester, IN United States)
Date Acquired
September 7, 2013
Publication Date
October 1, 2001
Subject Category
Inorganic, Organic And Physical Chemistry
Report/Patent Number
NAS 1.15:210700
Meeting Information
198th Electrochemical Society, Inc. Meeting(Phoenix, AZ)
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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