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Enhancement of Cognitive Processing by Multiple Sclerosis Patients Using Liquid Cooling Technology: A Case StudyRecent neuropsychological studies demonstrate that cognitive dysfunction is a common symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis. In many cases the presence of cognitive impairment affects the patient's daily activities to a greater extent than would be found due to their physical disability alone. Cognitive dysfunction can have a significant impact on the quality of life of both the patient and that of their primary caregiver. Two cognitively impaired male MS patients were given a visual discrimination task before and after a one hour cooling period. The subjects were presented a series of either red or blue circles or triangles. One of these combinations, or one fourth of the stimuli, was designated as the "target" presentation. EEG was recorded from 20 scalp electrodes using a Tracor Northern 7500 EEG/ERP system. Oral and ear temperatures were obtained and recorded manually every five minutes during the one hour cooling period. The EEG ERP signatures from each series of stimuli were analyzed in the energy density domain to determine the locus of neural activity at each EEG sampling time. The first subject's ear temperature did not decrease during the cooling period. It was actually elevated approximately 0.05 C by the end of the cooling period compared to his mean of control period value. In turn, Subject One's discrimination performance and cortical energy remained essentially the same after body cooling. In contrast, Subject Two's ear temperature decreased approx. 0.8 C during his cooling period. Subject Two's ERROR score decreased from 12 during the precooling control period to 2 after cooling. His ENERGY value increased approximately 300%, from a precooling value of approximately 200 to a postcooling value of nearly 600. These findings might be interpreted by the following three-part hypothesis: (1) the general cognitive impairment of MS patients may be a result of low or unfocused metabolic energy conversion in the cortex; (2) such differences show up most strongly in reduced energy in the occipital region during the initial processing of the precooling period visual stimulus which may indicate impaired early visual processing; and (3) increased postcooling activation in the le ft angular gyrus may result in enhanced higher-level reasoning related to processing visual task information. By this hypothesis the superior performance of Subject Two following body cooling may be a result of increased neural activation in his early visual recognition and processing centers.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Montgomery, Leslie D. (Lockheed Martin Engineering and Sciences Co. Moffett Field, CA United States)
Ku, Yu-Tsuan E. (Lockheed Martin Engineering and Sciences Co. Moffett Field, CA United States)
Montgomery, Richard W. (Management Analytic Associates, Inc. Corvallis, OR United States)
Kliss, Mark
Date Acquired
August 20, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1997
Subject Category
Behavioral Sciences
Meeting Information
1997 Annual Meeting of the Consortium of MS Centers(Alberta)
Funding Number(s)
PROJECT: RTOP 199-61-00
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.