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Effect of Free Stream Turbulence on the Flow-Induced Background Noise of In-Flow MicrophonesWhen making noise measurements of sound sources in flow using microphones immersed in an air stream or wind tunnel, the factor limiting the dynamic range of the measurement is, in many cases, the noise caused by the flow over the microphone. To lower this self-noise, and to protect the microphone diaphragm, an aerodynamic microphone forebody is usually mounted on the tip of the omnidirectional microphone. The microphone probe is then pointed into the wind stream. Even with a microphone forebody, however, the self-noise persists, prompting further research in the area of microphone forebody design for flow-induced self-noise reduction. The magnitude and frequency characteristics of in-flow microphone probe self-noise is dependent upon the exterior shape of the probe and on the level of turbulence in the onset flow, among other things. Several recent studies present new designs for microphone forebodies, some showing the forbodies' self-noise characteristics when used in a given facility. However, these self-noise characteristics may change when the probes are used in different facilities. The present paper will present results of an experimental investigation to determine an empirical relationship between flow turbulence and self-noise levels for several microphone forebody shapes as a function of frequency. As a result, the microphone probe self-noise for these probes will be known as a function of freestream turbulence, and knowing the freestream turbulence spectra for a given facility, the probe self-noise can be predicted. Flow-induced microphone self-noise is believed to be related to the freestream. turbulence by three separate mechanisms. The first mechanism is produced by large scale, as compared to the probe size, turbulence which appears to the probe as a variation in the angle of attack of the freestream. flow. This apparent angle of attack variation causes the pressure along the probe surface to fluctuate, and at the location of the sensor orifice this fluctuating surface pressure is sensed by the diaphragm as noise. The second mechanism is caused by the convection of smaller sized turbulence, on the order of the probe cross-section, which passes nearby or strikes the probe giving rise to a fluctuating pressure at the sensor orifice. And, the third mechanism is related to fine scale turbulence through its effects on boundary layer growth and transition to a turbulent boundary layer. The method for relating the probe self-noise to the freestream turbulence will be based on the method of K. J. Young5 from Boeing, who developed the technique and presented flow noise results for a Bruel & Kjaer Type 0385, 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) nose cone. The experimental set-up used in the present experiment is similar to that of Young and is described in the present paper. Finally, flow noise predictions are made using the empirical correlations. These predictions are then compared with actual flow noise measurements made in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center.
Document ID
20020061298
Document Type
Conference Paper
Authors
Allen, Christopher S.
(NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA United States)
Olson, Lawrence E.
Date Acquired
August 20, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1998
Subject Category
Acoustics
Meeting Information
1998 AIAA/CEAS Joint Acoustics Conference(Toulouse)
Funding Number(s)
PROJECT: RTOP 519-20-22
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.
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