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Air Purification in Closed Environments: An Overview of Spacecraft SystemsThe primary goal for a collective protection system and a spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are strikingly similar. Essentially both function to provide the occupants of a building or vehicle with a safe, habitable environment. The collective protection system shields military and civilian personnel from short-term exposure to external threats presented by toxic agents and industrial chemicals while an ECLSS sustains astronauts for extended periods within the hostile environment of space. Both have air quality control similarities with various aircraft and 'tight' buildings. This paper reviews basic similarities between air purification system requirements for collective protection and an ECLSS that define surprisingly common technological challenges and solutions. Systems developed for air revitalization on board spacecraft are discussed along with some history on their early development as well as a view of future needs. Emphasis is placed upon two systems implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS): the trace contaminant control system (TCCS) and the molecular sieve-based carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). Over its history, the NASA has developed and implemented many life support systems for astronauts. As the duration, complexity, and crew size of manned missions increased from minutes or hours for a single astronaut during Project Mercury to days and ultimately months for crews of 3 or more during the Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, and ISS programs, these systems have become more sophisticated. Systems aboard spacecraft such as the ISS have been designed to provide long-term environmental control and life support. Challenges facing the NASA's efforts include minimizing mass, volume, and power for such systems, while maximizing their safety, reliability, and performance. This paper will highlight similarities and differences among air purification systems. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.
Document ID
20030000981
Document Type
Conference Paper
Authors
Perry, Jay L. (NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL United States)
LeVan, Douglas (Vanderbilt Univ. Nashville, TN United States)
Crumbley, Robert
Date Acquired
August 21, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 2002
Subject Category
Man/System Technology and Life Support
Meeting Information
Nuclear Biological Chemical Defense Collective Protection Conference(Orlando, FL)
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.