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Hypergravity Stimulates the Extracellular Matrix/Integrin-Signaling Axis and Proliferation in Primary OsteoblastsWe set out to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the proliferative response of primary rat osteoblasts to mechanical stimulation using cell culture centrifugation as a model for hypergravity. We hypothesized that this proliferative response is mediated by specific integrin/Extracellular Matrix (ECM) interactions. To investigate this question we developed a cell culture centrifuge and an automated system that performs cell fixation during hypergravity loading. We generated expression vectors for various focal adhesion and cytoskeletal proteins fused to GFP or dsRed and visualized these structures in transfected (or infected) osteoblasts. The actin cytoskeleton was also visualized using rhodamine-phalloidin staining and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) levels were assessed biochemically. We observed that a 24 hour exposure to 50-g stimulated proliferation compared to the 1-g control when cells were plated on fibronectin, collagen Type I , and collagen Type IV, but not on uncoated tissue culture plastic surfaces. This proliferative response was greatest for osteoblasts grown on fibronectin (2-fold increase over 1-g control) and collagen Type I (1.4 fold increase over 1-g control), suggesting that specific matrices and integrins are involved in the signaling pathways required for proliferation. Exposing osteoblasts grown on different matrices to 10-g or 25-g showed that effects on proliferation depended on both matrix type and loading level. We found that osteoblasts exposed to a short pulse of hypergravity during adhesion spread further and had more GFP-FAK containing focal adhesions compared to their 1-g controls. While overall levels of FAK did not change, more FAK was in the active (phosphorylated) form under hypergravity than in the 1-g controls. Cytoskeletal F-actin organization into filaments was also more prominent after brief exposures to hypergravity during the first five minutes of adhesion. These results suggest that specific integrins sense hypergravity and activate distinct matrix-dependent FAK signaling pathways that can enhance proliferation. Our results also imply that brief exposures to hypergravity accelerate cell adhesion and spreading processes via the focal adhesion-signaling axis. These results support the role of the ECM/integrin-signaling axis in osteoblast response to hypergravity loading.
Document ID
20030062787
Document Type
Conference Paper
Authors
Parra, M. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Vercoutere, W. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Roden, C. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Banerjee, I. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Krauser, W. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Holton, E. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Searby, N. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Globus, R. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Almeida, E. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Date Acquired
August 21, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 2003
Subject Category
Life Sciences (General)
Meeting Information
The ASBMR(Association ofBone and Mineral Research) 25th Annual Meeting and Anniversary Celebration(Minneapolis, MN)
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.