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Precipitation Processes Developed During ARM (1997), TOGA COARE (1992), GATE (1974), SCSMEX (1998), and KWAJEX (1999): Consistent 2D, Semi-3D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model SimulationsReal clouds and cloud systems are inherently three-dimensional (3D). Because of the limitations in computer resources, however, most cloud-resolving models (CRMs) today are still two-dimensional (2D). A few 3D CRMs have been used to study the response of clouds to large-scale forcing. In these 3D simulations, the model domain was small, and the integration time was 6 hours. Only recently have 3D experiments been performed for multi-day periods for tropical cloud systems with large horizontal domains at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NACAR) and at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center . At Goddard, a 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model was used to simulate periods during TOGA COARE, SCSMEX and KWAJEX using 512 by 512 km domain (with 2 km resolution). The results indicate that surface precipitation and latent heating profiles are very similar between the 2D and 3D GCE model simulations. The reason for the strong similarity between the 2D and 3D CRM simulations is that the same observed large-scale advective tendencies of potential temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and horizontal momentum were used as the main focusing in both the 2D and 3D models. Interestingly, the 2D and 3D versions of the CRM used at CSU showed significant differences in the rainfall and cloud statistics for three ARM cases. The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to assess the performance of the super-parameterization technique, (2) calculate and examine the surface energy (especially radiation) and water budgets, and (3) identify the differences and similarities in the organization and entrainment rates of convection between simulated 2D and 3D cloud systems.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Tao, W-K.
(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Date Acquired
August 21, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 2003
Subject Category
Meteorology And Climatology
Meeting Information
Meeting: 6th Workshop on Regional Climate Simulation
Location: Chung-Li
Country: Taiwan, Province of China
Start Date: September 18, 2003
End Date: September 20, 2003
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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