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The mammalian retina as a clockMany physiological, cellular, and biochemical parameters in the retina of vertebrates show daily rhythms that, in many cases, also persist under constant conditions. This demonstrates that they are driven by a circadian pacemaker. The presence of an autonomous circadian clock in the retina of vertebrates was first demonstrated in Xenopus laevis and then, several years later, in mammals. In X. laevis and in chicken, the retinal circadian pacemaker has been localized in the photoreceptor layer, whereas in mammals, such information is not yet available. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led to the identification of a group of genes that are believed to constitute the molecular core of the circadian clock. These genes are expressed in the retina, although with a slightly different 24-h profile from that observed in the central circadian pacemaker. This result suggests that some difference (at the molecular level) may exist between the retinal clock and the clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of hypothalamus. The present review will focus on the current knowledge of the retinal rhythmicity and the mechanisms responsible for its control.
Document ID
20040088234
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Authors
Tosini, Gianluca
(Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine 720 Westview Dr. SW, Atlanta, Ga 30310-1495, United States)
Fukuhara, Chiaki
Date Acquired
August 21, 2013
Publication Date
July 1, 2002
Publication Information
Publication: Cell and tissue research
Volume: 309
Issue: 1
ISSN: 0302-766X
Subject Category
Life Sciences (General)
Funding Number(s)
CONTRACT_GRANT: NS34194
CONTRACT_GRANT: NS38483
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Other
Keywords
Review Literature
NASA Discipline Space Human Factors
Review
Non-NASA Center
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