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New digital measurement methods for left ventricular volume using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: comparison with electromagnetic flow method and magnetic resonance imagingAIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of using symmetrically rotated apical long axis planes for the determination of left ventricular (LV) volumes with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Real-time 3DE was performed in six sheep during 24 haemodynamic conditions with electromagnetic flow measurements (EM), and in 29 patients with magnetic resonance imaging measurements (MRI). LV volumes were calculated by Simpson's rule with five 3DE methods (i.e. apical biplane, four-plane, six-plane, nine-plane (in which the angle between each long axis plane was 90 degrees, 45 degrees, 30 degrees or 20 degrees, respectively) and standard short axis views (SAX)). Real-time 3DE correlated well with EM for LV stroke volumes in animals (r=0.68-0.95) and with MRI for absolute volumes in patients (r-values=0.93-0.98). However, agreement between MRI and apical nine-plane, six-plane, and SAX methods in patients was better than those with apical four-plane and bi-plane methods (mean difference = -15, -18, -13, vs. -31 and -48 ml for end-diastolic volume, respectively, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Apically rotated measurement methods of real-time 3DE correlated well with reference standards for calculating LV volumes. Balancing accuracy and required time for these LV volume measurements, the apical six-plane method is recommended for clinical use.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
External Source(s)
Qin, J. J. (The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Ohio 44195, United States)
Jones, M.
Shiota, T.
Greenberg, N. L.
Firstenberg, M. S.
Tsujino, H.
Zetts, A. D.
Sun, J. P.
Cardon, L. A.
Odabashian, J. A.
Flamm, S. D.
White, R. D.
Panza, J. A.
Thomas, J. D.
Date Acquired
August 21, 2013
Publication Date
June 1, 2000
Publication Information
Publication: European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology
Volume: 1
Issue: 2
ISSN: 1525-2167
Subject Category
Life Sciences (General)
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits
Evaluation Studies
NASA Program Biomedical Research and Countermeasures
Non-NASA Center
NASA Discipline Cardiopulmonary