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Radiation transport modeling and assessment to better predict radiation exposure, dose, and toxicological effects to human organs on long duration space flightsNASA is very interested in improving its ability to monitor and forecast the radiation levels that pose a health risk to space-walking astronauts as they construct the International Space Station and astronauts that will participate in long-term and deep-space missions. Human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century, will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and solar activity is presently unpredictable, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. Today, numerous models have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. Such a model is the Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronautics. SPENVIS, which has been assessed to be an excellent tool in characterizing the radiation environment for microelectronics and investigating orbital debris, is being evaluated for its usefulness with determining the dose and dose-equivalent for human exposure. Thus far. the calculations for dose-depth relations under varying shielding conditions have been in agreement with calculations done using HZETRN and PDOSE, which are well-known and widely used models for characterizing the environments for human exploratory missions. There is disagreement when assessing the impact of secondary radiation particles since SPENVIS does a crude estimation of the secondary radiation particles when calculating LET versus Flux. SPENVIS was used to model dose-depth relations for the blood-forming organs. Radiation sickness and cancer are life-threatening consequences resulting from radiation exposure. In space. exposure to radiation generally includes all of the critical organs. Biological and toxicological impacts have been included for discussion along with alternative risk mitigation methods--shielding and anti-carcinogens. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Document ID
20040088699
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Authors
Denkins, P. (NASA Johnson Space Center Houston TX United States)
Badhwar, G.
Obot, V.
Wilson, B.
Jejelewo, O.
Date Acquired
August 21, 2013
Publication Date
August 1, 2001
Publication Information
Publication: Acta astronautica
Volume: 49
Issue: 3-10
ISSN: 0094-5765
Subject Category
Aerospace Medicine
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Other
Keywords
STS-91 Shuttle Project
Flight Experiment
manned
short duration
NASA Experiment Number 9307039
NASA Discipline Radiation Health
NASA Center JSC