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Record 12 of 156
The evolution of glutathione metabolism in phototrophic microorganisms
External Online Source: doi:10.1007/BF02100044
Author and Affiliation:
Fahey, R. C.(University of California-San Diego, Department of Chemistry, La Jolla 92093, United States)
Buschbacher, R. M.
Newton, G. L.
Abstract: Of the many roles ascribed to glutathione (GSH) the one most clearly established is its role in the protection of higher eucaryotes against oxygen toxicity through destruction of thiol-reactive oxygen byproducts. If this is the primary function of GSH then GSH metabolism should have evolved during or after the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. That many bacteria do not produce GSH is consistent with this view. In the present study we have examined the low-molecular-weight thiol composition of a variety of phototrophic microorganisms to ascertain how evolution of GSH production is related to evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cells were extracted in the presence of monobromobimane (mBBr) to convert thiols to fluorescent derivatives, which were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Significant levels of GSH were not found in the green bacteria (Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chloroflexus aurantiacus). Substantial levels of GSH were present in the purple bacteria (Chromatium vinosum, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Rhodocyclus gelatinosa), the cyanobacteria [Anacystis nidulans, Microcoleus chthonoplastes S.G., Nostoc muscorum, Oscillatoria amphigranulata, Oscillatoria limnetica, Oscillatoria sp. (Stinky Spring, Utah), Oscillatoria terebriformis, Plectonema boryanum, and Synechococcus lividus], and eucaryotic algae (Chlorella pyrenoidsa, Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena gracilis, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). Other thiols measured included cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine, thiosulfate, coenzyme A, and sulfide; several unidentified thiols were also detected. Many of the organisms examined also exhibited a marked ability to reduce mBBr to syn-(methyl,methyl)bimane, an ability that was quenched by treatment with 2-pyridyl disulfide or 5,5'-bisdithio-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) prior to reaction with mBBr. These observations indicate the presence of a reducing system capable of electron transfer to mBBr and reduction of reactive disulfides. The distribution of GSH in phototrophic eubacteria indicates that GSH synthesis evolved at or around the time that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved.
Publication Date: Jan 01, 1987
Document ID:
20040089109
(Acquired Sep 07, 2004)
Subject Category: EXOBIOLOGY
Document Type: Journal Article
Publication Information: Journal of molecular evolution (ISSN 0022-2844); Volume 25; 81-8
Publisher Information: United States
Contract/Grant/Task Num: NAGW-342
Financial Sponsor: NASA; Washington DC United States
Description: In English
Distribution Limits: Unclassified; Publicly available; Unlimited
Rights: Copyright
NASA Terms: BACTERIA; EVOLUTION; GLUTATHIONE; METABOLISM; MICROORGANISMS; ALGAE; BLUE GREEN ALGAE; DISULFIDES; EUKARYOTES; EXOBIOLOGY; OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS; OXYGEN; PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Other Descriptors: BACTERIA/CHEMISTRY/METABOLISM; EVOLUTION; GLUTATHIONE/METABOLISM; SULFHYDRYL COMPOUNDS/ANALYSIS; ALGAE, GREEN; BACTERIAL PHYSIOLOGY; BICYCLO COMPOUNDS/METABOLISM; CHLOROBI; CHROMATIUM; CYANOBACTERIA; DISULFIDES/ANALYSIS; EUKARYOTIC CELLS; OXIDATION-REDUCTION; OXYGEN/TOXICITY; PHOTOSYNTHESIS/PHYSIOLOGY; SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S; NASA DISCIPLINE EXOBIOLOGY; NON-NASA CENTER
Availability Source: Other Sources
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