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An overview of vertebrate mineralization with emphasis on collagen-mineral interactionThe nucleation, growth, and development of mineral crystals through their interaction principally with collagen in normal bone and calcifying tendon have been elaborated by applying a number of different techniques for analysis of the inorganic and organic constituents of these tissues. The methods have included conventional and high voltage electron microscopy, electron diffraction, microscopic tomography and 3D image reconstruction, and atomic force microscopy. This summary presents results of these studies that have now characterized the size, shape, and aspects of the chemical nature of the crystals as well as their orientation, alignment, location, and distribution with respect to collagen. These data have provided the means for understanding more completely the formation and strength of the collagen-mineral composite present in most vertebrate calcifying tissues and, from that information, a basis for the adaptation of such tissues under mechanical constraints. In the context of the latter point, other data are given showing effects on collagen in bone cell cultures subjected to the unloading parameters of spaceflight. Implications of these results may be particularly relevant to explaining loss of bone by humans and other vertebrate animals during missions in space, during situations of extended fracture healing, long-term bedrest, physical immobilization, and related conditions. In a broader sense, the data speak to the response of bone and mineralized vertebrate tissues to changes in gravitational loading and applied mechanical forces in general.
Document ID
20040089168
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Authors
Landis, W. J. (Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine Rootstown 44272, United States)
Date Acquired
August 21, 2013
Publication Date
May 1, 1999
Publication Information
Publication: Gravitational and space biology bulletin : publication of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology
Volume: 12
Issue: 2
ISSN: 1089-988X
Subject Category
Aerospace Medicine
Funding Number(s)
CONTRACT_GRANT: AR 41452
CONTRACT_GRANT: NAG5-4377
CONTRACT_GRANT: NAG2-538
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Other
Keywords
Non-NASA Center
STS-59 Shuttle Project
NASA Discipline Musculoskeletal
Review
manned
short duration
Flight Experiment
Review, Tutorial