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radiogenic cell transformation and carcinogenesisRadiation carcinogenesis is one of the major biological effects considered important in the risk assessment for space travel. Various biological model systems, including both cultured cells and animals, have been found useful for studying the carcinogenic effects of space radiations, which consist of energetic electrons, protons and heavy ions. The development of techniques for studying neoplastic cell transformation in culture has made it possible to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Cultured cell systems are thus complementary to animal models. Many investigators have determined the oncogenic effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation in cultured mammalian cells. One of the cell systems used most often for radiation transformation studies is mouse embryonic cells (C3H10T1/2), which are easy to culture and give good quantitative dose-response curves. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for heavy ions with various energies and linear energy transfer (LET) have been obtained with this cell system. Similar RBE and LET relationship was observed by investigators for other cell systems. In addition to RBE measurements, fundamental questions on repair of sub- and potential oncogenic lesions, direct and indirect effect, primary target and lesion, the importance of cell-cell interaction and the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in radiogenic carcinogenesis have been studied, and interesting results have been found. Recently several human epithelial cell systems have been developed, and ionizing radiation have been shown to transform these cells. Oncogenic transformation of these cells, however, requires a long expression time and/or multiple radiation exposures. Limited experimental data indicate high-LET heavy ions can be more effective than low-LET radiation in inducing cell transformation. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses can be performed with cloned transformants to provide insights into basic genetic mechanism(s) of radiogenic transformation of human epithelial cells.
Document ID
20040090020
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Authors
Yang, T. C.
(NASA Johnson Space Center Houston TX United States)
Georgy, K. A.
Mei, M.
Durante, M.
Craise, L. M.
Date Acquired
August 21, 2013
Publication Date
October 1, 1995
Publication Information
Publication: ASGSB bulletin : publication of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology
Volume: 8
Issue: 2
ISSN: 0898-4697
Subject Category
Life Sciences (General)
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Other
Keywords
NASA Discipline Radiation Health
NASA Center JSC
NASA Program Radiation Health
Review
NASA Discipline Number 45-10
Review, Tutorial