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Ionizing radiation exposure of LDEF (pre-recovery estimates)The long duration exposure facility (LDEF), launched into a 258 nautical mile orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees, remained in space for nearly 6 yr. The 21,500 lb NASA satellite was one of the largest payloads ever deployed by the Space Shuttle. LDEF completed 32,422 orbits and carried 57 major experiments representing more than 200 investigators from 33 private companies, 21 universities and nine countries. The experiments covered a wide range of disciplines including basic science, electronics, optics, materials, structures and power and propulsion. A number of the experiments were specifically designed to measure the radiation environment. These experiments are of specific interest, since the LDEF orbit is essentially the same as that of the Space Station Freedom. Consequently, the radiation measurements on LDEF will play a significant role in the design of radiation shielding of the space station. The contributions of the various authors presented here attempt to predict the major aspects of the radiation exposure received by the various LDEF experiments and therefore should be helpful to investigators who are in the process of analyzing experiments which may have been affected by exposure to ionizing radiation. The paper discusses the various types and sources of ionizing radiation including cosmic rays, trapped particles (both protons and electrons) and secondary particles (including neutrons, spallation products and high-LET recoils), as well as doses and LET spectra as a function of shielding. Projections of the induced radioactivity of LDEF are also discussed.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Benton, E. V.
(University of San Francisco CA 94117-1080)
Heinrich, W.
Parnell, T. A.
Armstrong, T. W.
Derrickson, J. H.
Fishman, G. J.
Frank, A. L.
Watts, J. W. Jr
Wiegel, B.
Date Acquired
August 21, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1992
Publication Information
Publication: International Journal Of Radiation Applications And Instrumentation. Part D, Nuclear Tracks And Radiation Measurements
Volume: 20
Issue: 1
ISSN: 0735-245X
Subject Category
Aerospace Medicine
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits
Flight Experiment
NASA Program Radiation Health
Non-NASA Center
Review, Tutorial
NASA Discipline Number 04-10
STS-41C Shuttle Project
NASA Discipline Number 00-00
NASA Program Flight
short duration
NASA Discipline Radiation Health

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