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Real-time three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for characterizing the spatial velocity distribution and quantifying the peak flow rate in the left ventricular outflow tractQuantification of flow with pulsed-wave Doppler assumes a "flat" velocity profile in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), which observation refutes. Recent development of real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) color Doppler allows one to obtain an entire cross-sectional velocity distribution of the LVOT, which is not possible using conventional 2-D echo. In an animal experiment, the cross-sectional color Doppler images of the LVOT at peak systole were derived and digitally transferred to a computer to visualize and quantify spatial velocity distributions and peak flow rates. Markedly skewed profiles, with higher velocities toward the septum, were consistently observed. Reference peak flow rates by electromagnetic flow meter correlated well with 3-D peak flow rates (r = 0.94), but with an anticipated underestimation. Real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography was capable of determining cross-sectional velocity distributions and peak flow rates, demonstrating the utility of this new method for better understanding and quantifying blood flow phenomena.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Tsujino, H.
(The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Cleveland, OH 44195, United States)
Jones, M.
Shiota, T.
Qin, J. X.
Greenberg, N. L.
Cardon, L. A.
Morehead, A. J.
Zetts, A. D.
Travaglini, A.
Bauer, F.
Panza, J. A.
Thomas, J. D.
Date Acquired
August 21, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 2001
Publication Information
Publication: Ultrasound in medicine & biology
Volume: 27
Issue: 1
ISSN: 0301-5629
Subject Category
Life Sciences (General)
Distribution Limits
NASA Discipline Cardiopulmonary
Non-NASA Center
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