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Evolution of hematopoiesis: Three members of the PU.1 transcription factor family in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteriaT lymphocytes and B lymphocytes are present in jawed vertebrates, including cartilaginous fishes, but not in jawless vertebrates or invertebrates. The origins of these lineages may be understood in terms of evolutionary changes in the structure and regulation of transcription factors that control lymphocyte development, such as PU.1. The identification and characterization of three members of the PU.1 family of transcription factors in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria, are described here. Two of these genes are orthologs of mammalian PU.1 and Spi-C, respectively, whereas the third gene, Spi-D, is a different family member. In addition, a PU.1-like gene has been identified in a jawless vertebrate, Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey). Both DNA-binding and transactivation domains are highly conserved between mammalian and skate PU.1, in marked contrast to lamprey Spi, in which similarity is evident only in the DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data suggests that the appearance of Spi-C may predate the divergence of the jawed and jawless vertebrates and that Spi-D arose before the divergence of the cartilaginous fish from the lineage leading to the mammals. The tissue-specific expression patterns of skate PU.1 and Spi-C suggest that these genes share regulatory as well as structural properties with their mammalian orthologs.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
External Source(s)
Anderson, M. K.
(Stowers Institute for Medical Research Kansas City, MO 64110, United States)
Sun, X.
Miracle, A. L.
Litman, G. W.
Rothenberg, E. V.
Date Acquired
August 21, 2013
Publication Date
January 16, 2001
Publication Information
Publication: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume: 98
Issue: 2
ISSN: 0027-8424
Subject Category
Life Sciences (General)
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits
NASA Discipline Evolutionary Biology
Non-NASA Center
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