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Noninvasive estimation of transmitral pressure drop across the normal mitral valve in humans: importance of convective and inertial forces during left ventricular fillingOBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that color M-mode (CMM) images could be used to solve the Euler equation, yielding regional pressure gradients along the scanline, which could then be integrated to yield the unsteady Bernoulli equation and estimate noninvasively both the convective and inertial components of the transmitral pressure difference. BACKGROUND: Pulsed and continuous wave Doppler velocity measurements are routinely used clinically to assess severity of stenotic and regurgitant valves. However, only the convective component of the pressure gradient is measured, thereby neglecting the contribution of inertial forces, which may be significant, particularly for nonstenotic valves. Color M-mode provides a spatiotemporal representation of flow across the mitral valve. METHODS: In eight patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, high-fidelity left atrial and ventricular pressure measurements were obtained synchronously with transmitral CMM digital recordings. The instantaneous diastolic transmitral pressure difference was computed from the M-mode spatiotemporal velocity distribution using the unsteady flow form of the Bernoulli equation and was compared to the catheter measurements. RESULTS: From 56 beats in 16 hemodynamic stages, inclusion of the inertial term ([deltapI]max = 1.78+/-1.30 mm Hg) in the noninvasive pressure difference calculation significantly increased the temporal correlation with catheter-based measurement (r = 0.35+/-0.24 vs. 0.81+/-0.15, p< 0.0001). It also allowed an accurate approximation of the peak pressure difference ([deltapc+I]max = 0.95 [delta(p)cathh]max + 0.24, r = 0.96, p<0.001, error = 0.08+/-0.54 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: Inertial forces are significant components of the maximal pressure drop across the normal mitral valve. These can be accurately estimated noninvasively using CMM recordings of transmitral flow, which should improve the understanding of diastolic filling and function of the heart.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Firstenberg, M. S. (Cleveland Clinic Foundation Ohio 44195, United States)
Vandervoort, P. M.
Greenberg, N. L.
Smedira, N. G.
McCarthy, P. M.
Garcia, M. J.
Thomas, J. D.
Date Acquired
August 21, 2013
Publication Date
November 15, 2000
Publication Information
Publication: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume: 36
Issue: 6
ISSN: 0735-1097
Subject Category
Life Sciences (General)
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits
Non-NASA Center
NASA Discipline Cardiopulmonary