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Record Details

Record 3 of 2116
Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys
Author and Affiliation:
Dai, M.(Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, New York, New York 10029-6574, United States)
Raphan, T.
Kozlovskaya, I.
Cohen, B.
Abstract: Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.
Publication Date: Jul 01, 1998
Document ID:
20040172621
(Acquired Dec 09, 2004)
Subject Category: LIFE SCIENCES (GENERAL)
Document Type: Journal Article
Publication Information: Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (ISSN 0194-5998); Volume 119; 1; 65-77
Publisher Information: United States
Description: In English
Distribution Limits: Unclassified; Publicly available; Unlimited
Rights: Copyright
NASA Terms: ADAPTATION; EYE MOVEMENTS; MONKEYS; NYSTAGMUS; ORIENTATION; REFLEXES; SPACE PERCEPTION; VESTIBULAR NYSTAGMUS; VESTIBULES; WEIGHTLESSNESS; COSMOS SATELLITES; FACTOR ANALYSIS; PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES; TILT-TABLE TEST; TIME DEPENDENCE
Other Descriptors: ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL/PHYSIOLOGY; CONVERGENCE, OCULAR/PHYSIOLOGY; NYSTAGMUS, PHYSIOLOGIC/PHYSIOLOGY; ORIENTATION/PHYSIOLOGY; OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE/PHYSIOLOGY; REFLEX, VESTIBULO-OCULAR/PHYSIOLOGY; SPACE PERCEPTION/PHYSIOLOGY; WEIGHTLESSNESS/ADVERSE EFFECTS; ANIMALS; FACTOR ANALYSIS, STATISTICAL; MACACA MULATTA; SPACE FLIGHT; SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S; TILT-TABLE TEST; TIME FACTORS; NASA DISCIPLINE NEUROSCIENCE; NASA EXPERIMENT NUMBER 8809A10; NASA EXPERIMENT NUMBER COS 2044-8; NON-NASA CENTER; COSMOS 2044 PROJECT; COSMOS 2229 PROJECT; FLIGHT EXPERIMENT; SHORT DURATION; UNMANNED
Availability Source: Other Sources
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