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Record Details

Record 37 of 13550
Assembly and enlargement of the primary cell wall in plants
External Online Source: doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.13.1.171
Author and Affiliation:
Cosgrove, D. J.(University Park, Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania 16802, United States)
Abstract: Growing plant cells are shaped by an extensible wall that is a complex amalgam of cellulose microfibrils bonded noncovalently to a matrix of hemicelluloses, pectins, and structural proteins. Cellulose is synthesized by complexes in the plasma membrane and is extruded as a self-assembling microfibril, whereas the matrix polymers are secreted by the Golgi apparatus and become integrated into the wall network by poorly understood mechanisms. The growing wall is under high tensile stress from cell turgor and is able to enlarge by a combination of stress relaxation and polymer creep. A pH-dependent mechanism of wall loosening, known as acid growth, is characteristic of growing walls and is mediated by a group of unusual wall proteins called expansins. Expansins appear to disrupt the noncovalent bonding of matrix hemicelluloses to the microfibril, thereby allowing the wall to yield to the mechanical forces generated by cell turgor. Other wall enzymes, such as (1-->4) beta-glucanases and pectinases, may make the wall more responsive to expansin-mediated wall creep whereas pectin methylesterases and peroxidases may alter the wall so as to make it resistant to expansin-mediated creep.
Publication Date: Jan 01, 1997
Document ID:
20040172809
(Acquired Dec 09, 2004)
Subject Category: LIFE SCIENCES (GENERAL)
Document Type: Journal Article
Publication Information: Annual review of cell and developmental biology (ISSN 1081-0706); Volume 13; 171-201
Publisher Information: United States
Description: In English
Distribution Limits: Unclassified; Publicly available; Unlimited
Rights: Copyright
NASA Terms: CELL MEMBRANES (BIOLOGY); CELLS (BIOLOGY); PARTITIONS (STRUCTURES); PLANTS (BOTANY); CELLULOSE; GENETICS; POLYSACCHARIDES; PROTEINS
Other Descriptors: CELL WALL/CHEMISTRY/ULTRASTRUCTURE; PLANTS/ULTRASTRUCTURE; CELLULOSE/CHEMISTRY/METABOLISM; PECTINS/CHEMISTRY/METABOLISM; PLANT PROTEINS/GENETICS/PHYSIOLOGY; POLYSACCHARIDES/METABOLISM; NASA DISCIPLINE PLANT BIOLOGY; NON-NASA CENTER; REVIEW; REVIEW, ACADEMIC
Availability Source: Other Sources
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