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A Deep Search with the Hubble Space Telescope for Late-Time Supernova Signatures in the Hosts of XRF 011030 and XRF 020427X-ray flashes (XRFs) are, like gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), thought to signal the collapse of massive stars in distant galaxies. Many models posit that the isotropic equivalent energies of XRFs are lower than those for GRBs, such that they are visible fiom a reduced range of distances when compared with GRBs. Here we present the results of two-epoch Hubble Space Telescope imaging of two XRFs. These images, taken approximately 45 and 200 days postburst, reveal no evidence of an associated supernova in either case. Supernovae such as SN 1998bw would have been visible out to z approximately 1.5 in each case, while fainter supernovae such as SN 2002ap would have been visible to z approximately 1. If the XRFs lie at such large distances, their energies would not fit the observed correlation between the GRB peak energy and isotropic energy release (E(sub p) proportional to E(sub iso)(sup 1/2), in which soft bursts are less energetic. We conclude that, should these XRFs reside at low redshifts (z less than 0.6), either their line of sight is heavily extinguished, they are associated with extremely faint supernovae, or, unlike GRBs, these XRFs do not have temporally coincident supernovae.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Levan, Andrew (Washington Univ. Seattle, WA, United States)
Patel, Sandeep (Washington Univ. Seattle, WA, United States)
Kouveliotou, Chryssa (NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL, United States)
Fruchter, Andrew (Space Telescope Science Inst. Baltimore, MD, United States)
Rhoads, James (Space Telescope Science Inst. Baltimore, MD, United States)
Rol, Evert (Washington Univ. Seattle, WA, United States)
Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico (Washington Univ. Seattle, WA, United States)
Gorosabel, Javier (Space Telescope Science Inst. Baltimore, MD, United States)
Hiorth, Jens (Copenhagen Univ. Denmark)
Wijers, Ralph (Astronomical Inst. Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Date Acquired
August 23, 2013
Publication Date
April 1, 2005
Publication Information
Publication: The Astrophysical Journal
Volume: 622
Subject Category
Funding Number(s)
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