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Irradiating of Bulk Soybeans: Influence on Their Functional and Sensory Properties for Soyfood ProcessingSoybeans were chosen for lunar and planetary missions, where soybeans will be supplied in bulk or grown locally, due to their nutritive value and ability to produce oil and protein for further food applications. However, soybeans must be processed into foods prior to consumption. Radiation that soybeans would be exposed to during bulk storage prior to and during a Mars mission may influence their germination and functional properties. The influence of radiation includes the affect of surface pasteurization to ensure the astronauts safety from food-borne illnesses (HACCP, CCP), and the affect of the amount of radiation the soybeans receive during a Mars mission. Decreases in the amount of natural antioxidants free radical formation, and oxidation-induced changes in the soybean will influence the nutritional value, texture, color, and aroma of soyfoods. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of pasteurization and sterilization surface radiation on whole soybeans using gamma and electron beam radiation. The influence of 0, 1, 5, 10, and 30kGy on microbial load, germination rate, ease of processing, and quality of soymilk and tofu were determined. Surface radiation of whole dry soybeans using electron beam or gamma rays from 1-30kGy did provide microbial safety for the astronauts. However, the lower dose levels had surviving yeasts and molds. These doses caused oxidative changes that resulted in soymilk and tofu with rancid aromas. GC-MS of the aroma compounds using SPME Headspace confirmed the presence of lipid oxidation compounds. Soybean germination ability was reduced as radiation dosage increased. While lower doses may reduce these problems, the ability to insure microbial safety of bulk soybeans will be lost. Counter measures could include vacuum packaging, nitrogen flushing, added antioxidants, and radiating under freezing conditions. Doses below 1kGy need to be investigated further to determine the influence of the radiation encountered during Mars missions.
Document ID
20060020739
Document Type
Conference Paper
Authors
Chia, Chiew-Ling (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology Ames, IA, United States)
Wilson, Lester A. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology Ames, IA, United States)
Boylston, Terri (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology Ames, IA, United States)
Perchonok, Michele (NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, TX, United States)
French, Stephen (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology Ames, IA, United States)
Date Acquired
August 23, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 2006
Subject Category
Man/System Technology and Life Support
Meeting Information
Institute of Food Technologists(Chicago, IL)
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.