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Record 23 of 248
Variations in the Sea Ice Edge and the Marginal Ice Zone on Different Spatial Scales as Observed from Different Satellite Sensor
Author and Affiliation:
Markus, Thorsten(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Henrichs, John(Fort Hays State Univ., Dept. of Geosciences, Hays, KS, United States)
Abstract: The Marginal sea Ice Zone (MIZ) and the sea ice edge are the most dynamic areas of the sea ice cover. Knowledge of the sea ice edge location is vital for routing shipping in the polar regions. The ice edge is the location of recurrent plankton blooms, and is the habitat for a number of animals, including several which are under severe ecological threat. Polar lows are known to preferentially form along the sea ice edge because of induced atmospheric baroclinicity, and the ice edge is also the location of both vertical and horizontal ocean currents driven by thermal and salinity gradients. Finally, sea ice is both a driver and indicator of climate change and monitoring the position of the ice edge accurately over long time periods enables assessment of the impact of global and regional warming near the poles. Several sensors are currently in orbit that can monitor the sea ice edge. These sensors, though, have different spatial resolutions, different limitations, and different repeat frequencies. Satellite passive microwave sensors can monitor the ice edge on a daily or even twice-daily basis, albeit with low spatial resolution - 25 km for the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) or 12.5 km for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E). Although special methods exist that allow the detection of the sea ice edge at a quarter of that nominal resolution (PSSM). Visible and infrared data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provide daily coverage at 1 km and 250 m, respectively, but the surface observations me limited to cloud-free periods. The Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) has a resolution of 15 to 30 m but is limited to cloud-free periods as well, and does not provide daily coverage. Imagery from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instruments has resolutions of tens of meters to 100 m, and can be used to distinguish open water and sea ice on the basis of surface and volume scattering characteristics. The Canadian RADARSAT C-band SAR provides data that cover the Arctic Ocean and the MIZ every 3 days. A change-point detection approach was utilized to obtain an ice edge estimate from the RADARSAT data The Quickscat scatterometer provides ice edge information with a resolution of a few kilometers on a near-daily basis. During portions of March and April of 2003 a series of aircraft flights were conducted over the ice edge in the Bering Sea carrying the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR), which provides spectral coverage identical with the AMSR-E instrument at a resolution of 500 meters. In this study we investigated these different data sets and analyzed differences in their definition of the sea ice edge and the marginal ice zone and how these differences as well as their individual limitations affect the monitoring of the ice edge dynamics. We also examined how the nature of the sea ice edge, including its location, compactness and shape, changes over the seasons. Our approach was based on calculation of distances between ice edges derived from the satellite and aircraft data sets listed above as well as spectral coherence methods and shape parameters such as tortuosity, curvature, and fractional dimension.
Publication Date: Jan 01, 2006
Document ID:
(Acquired May 03, 2007)
Document Type: Conference Paper
Meeting Information: IGARSS; 31 Jul - 4 Aug. 2006; Denver, CO; United States
Meeting Sponsor: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; United States
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; Greenbelt, MD, United States
Financial Sponsor: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; Greenbelt, MD, United States
Organization Source: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; Greenbelt, MD, United States
Description: 2p; In English
Distribution Limits: Unclassified; Publicly available; Unlimited
Rights: Copyright
Availability Source: Other Sources
Availability Notes: Abstract Only
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