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Chromosomal Aberrations in DNA Repair Defective Cell Lines: Comparisons of Dose Rate and Radiation QualityChromosome aberration yields were assessed in DNA double-strand break repair (DSB) deficient cells after acute doses of gamma-rays or high-LET iron nuclei, or low dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma-rays. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase, DNA-PK activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post-irradiation and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma radiation induced higher yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both chromosome exchange types were significantly higher for the ATM and NBS defective lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges in the NBS cells. Large increases in the quadratic dose response terms indicate the important roles of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications that facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize aberration formation. Differences in the response of AT and NBS deficient cells at lower doses suggests important questions about the applicability of observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low dose exposures. For all iron nuclei irradiated cells, regression models preferred purely linear and quadratic dose responses for simple and complex exchanges, respectively. All the DNA repair defective cell lines had lower Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values than normal cells, the lowest being for the DNA-PK-deficient cells, which was near unity. To further investigate the sensitivity differences for low and low high doses, we performed chronic low dose-rate irradiation, and have begun studies with ATM and Nibrin inhibitors and siRNA knockout of these proteins. Results support the conclusion that for the endpoint of simple chromosomal aberrations (translocation or dicentrics), the increased radiation sensitivity of AT cells found at high doses (>1 Gy) does not carry over to low doses or doserates, while NBS cells show increased sensitivity for both high and low dose exposures.
Document ID
20090013725
Document Type
Conference Paper
Authors
George, K. A. (Wyle Labs., Inc. Houston, TX, United States)
Hada, M. (Universities Space Research Association Houston, TX, United States)
Patel, Z. (Universities Space Research Association Houston, TX, United States)
Huff, J. (Universities Space Research Association Houston, TX, United States)
Pluth, J. M. (California Univ., Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Berkeley, CA, United States)
Cucinotta, F. A. (NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, TX, United States)
Date Acquired
August 24, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 2009
Subject Category
Life Sciences (General)
Report/Patent Number
JSC-18081
Meeting Information
Radiation Research Society 55th Annual Meeting(Savannah, GA)
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Other