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Use of the Delay-Tolerant Networking Bundle Protocol from SpaceThe Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), constructed by Survey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), is a multisatellite Earth-imaging low-Earth-orbit sensor network where captured image swaths are stored onboard each satellite and later downloaded from the satellite payloads to a ground station. Store-and-forward of images with capture and later download gives each satellite the characteristics of a node in a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN). Originally developed for the Interplanetary Internet, DTNs are now under investigation in an Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) DTN research group (RG), which has developed a bundle architecture and protocol. The DMC is currently unique in its adoption of the Internet Protocol (IP) for its imaging payloads and for satellite command and control, based around reuse of commercial networking and link protocols. These satellites use of IP has enabled earlier experiments with the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) onboard the constellation's UK-DMC satellite. Earth images are downloaded from the satellites using a custom IPbased high-speed transfer protocol developed by SSTL, Saratoga, which tolerates unusual link environments. Saratoga has been documented in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for wider adoption. We experiment with use of DTNRG bundle concepts onboard the UKDMC satellite, by examining how Saratoga can be used as a DTN convergence layer to carry the DTNRG Bundle Protocol, so that sensor images can be delivered to ground stations and beyond as bundles. This is the first successful use of the DTNRG Bundle Protocol in a space environment. We use our practical experience to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the Bundle Protocol for DTN use, paying attention to fragmentation, custody transfer, and reliability issues.
Document ID
Acquisition Source
Glenn Research Center
Document Type
Technical Memorandum (TM)
Wood, Lloyd
(Cisco Systems United Kingdom)
Ivancic, William D.
(NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH, United States)
Eddy, Wesley M.
(Verizon Federal Network Systems Cleveland, OH, United States)
Stewart, Dave
(Verizon Federal Network Systems Cleveland, OH, United States)
Northam, James
(Surrey Univ. Guildford, United Kingdom)
Jackson, Chris
(Surrey Univ. Guildford, United Kingdom)
daSilvaCuriel, Alex
(Surrey Univ. Guildford, United Kingdom)
Date Acquired
August 24, 2013
Publication Date
April 1, 2009
Subject Category
Computer Systems
Report/Patent Number
Meeting Information
Meeting: 59th International Astronautical Congress and Exhibition 2008 (IAC)
Location: Glasgow, Scotland
Country: United Kingdom
Start Date: September 29, 2008
End Date: October 3, 2008
Funding Number(s)
WBS: WBS 439432.
Distribution Limits
Public Use Permitted.
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