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2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL MeasurementCarbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most important greenhouse gases. It is essential for the study of global warming to accurately measure the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and continuously record its variation. A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed in NASA Langley Research Center. This laser system is capable of making a vertical profiling of CO2 from ground and column measurement of CO2 from air and space-borne platform. The transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of ~50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. A Ho:YLF laser operating in the range of 2.05 micrometers can be tuned over several characteristic lines of CO2 absorption. Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of CO2 with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ. For coherent detection, high repetition rate is required for speckle averaging to obtain highly precise measurements. However, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser can not operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. A Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can operate in high repetition rate. A theoretical model has been established to simulate the performance of Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF lasers. For continuous wave (CW) operation, high pump intensity with small beam size is suitable for high efficiency. For Q-switched operation, the optimal energy extraction relies on the pump intensity, pump volume, and pump duration which is inversely proportion to the repetition rate. CW and Q-switched Ho:YLF lasers with different linear cavity configurations have been designed and demonstrated for a 30 W Tm:fiber pump laser. The CW Ho laser slope efficiency and optical-to-optical efficiencies reach 65% and 55%, respectively. The pulsed laser efficiency depends on the repetition rate. For 1 kHz operation, the optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. Currently, the injection seeding success rate is between 99.4% and 99.95%. After a ten thousand pulses, the standard deviation of the laser frequency jitter is about 3 MHz. It meets the requirements of highly precise CO2 concentration measurement. In conclusion, an injection seeded, high repetition rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF laser has been developed for a coherent CO2 differential absorption lidar. This master-slave laser system has high optical-to-optical efficiency and seeding success rate. It can potentially meet the requirements of the coherent detection of CO2 concentration by a differential absorption lidar technique.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Singh, Upendra N.
(NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Bai, Yingxin
(Science Systems and Applications, Inc. Hampton, VA, United States)
Yu, Jirong
(NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Date Acquired
August 24, 2013
Publication Date
September 13, 2009
Subject Category
Lasers And Masers
Report/Patent Number
Meeting Information
8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference(Jena)
Funding Number(s)
WBS: WBS 478643.
Distribution Limits
No Preview Available