Algorithms for Spectral Decomposition with Applications to Optical Plume Anomaly DetectionThe analysis of spectral signals for features that represent physical phenomenon is ubiquitous in the science and engineering communities. There are two main approaches that can be taken to extract relevant features from these high-dimensional data streams. The first set of approaches relies on extracting features using a physics-based paradigm where the underlying physical mechanism that generates the spectra is used to infer the most important features in the data stream. We focus on a complementary methodology that uses a data-driven technique that is informed by the underlying physics but also has the ability to adapt to unmodeled system attributes and dynamics. We discuss the following four algorithms: Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA), Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and compare their performance on a spectral emulator which we use to generate artificial data with known statistical properties. This spectral emulator mimics the real-world phenomena arising from the plume of the space shuttle main engine and can be used to validate the results that arise from various spectral decomposition algorithms and is very useful for situations where real-world systems have very low probabilities of fault or failure. Our results indicate that methods like SDA and NMF provide a straightforward way of incorporating prior physical knowledge while NMF with a tuning mechanism can give superior performance on some tests. We demonstrate these algorithms to detect potential system-health issues on data from a spectral emulator with tunable health parameters.
Srivastava, Askok N. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Matthews, Bryan (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Das, Santanu (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)