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Overview of the Graphical User Interface for the GERMcode (GCR Event-Based Risk Model)The descriptions of biophysical events from heavy ions are of interest in radiobiology, cancer therapy, and space exploration. The biophysical description of the passage of heavy ions in tissue and shielding materials is best described by a stochastic approach that includes both ion track structure and nuclear interactions. A new computer model called the GCR Event-based Risk Model (GERM) code was developed for the description of biophysical events from heavy ion beams at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The GERMcode calculates basic physical and biophysical quantities of high-energy protons and heavy ions that have been studied at NSRL for the purpose of simulating space radiobiological effects. For mono-energetic beams, the code evaluates the linear-energy transfer (LET), range (R), and absorption in tissue equivalent material for a given Charge (Z), Mass Number (A) and kinetic energy (E) of an ion. In addition, a set of biophysical properties are evaluated such as the Poisson distribution of ion or delta-ray hits for a specified cellular area, cell survival curves, and mutation and tumor probabilities. The GERMcode also calculates the radiation transport of the beam line for either a fixed number of user-specified depths or at multiple positions along the Bragg curve of the particle. The contributions from primary ion and nuclear secondaries are evaluated. The GERMcode accounts for the major nuclear interaction processes of importance for describing heavy ion beams, including nuclear fragmentation, elastic scattering, and knockout-cascade processes by using the quantum multiple scattering fragmentation (QMSFRG) model. The QMSFRG model has been shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data for nuclear fragmentation cross sections, and has been used by the GERMcode for application to thick target experiments. The GERMcode provides scientists participating in NSRL experiments with the data needed for the interpretation of their experiments, including the ability to model the beam line, the shielding of samples and sample holders, and the estimates of basic physical and biological outputs of the designed experiments. We present an overview of the GERMcode GUI, as well as providing training applications.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Kim, Myung-Hee Y. (Universities Space Research Association Houston, TX, United States)
Cucinotta, Francis A. (NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, TX, United States)
Date Acquired
August 24, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 2010
Subject Category
Computer Programming and Software
Report/Patent Number
Meeting Information
21st NASA Space Radiation Investigators'' Workshop(Port Jefferson, NY)
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