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Utilizing In Situ Directional Hyperspectral Measurements to Validate Bio-Indicator Simulations for a Corn Crop CanopyTwo radiative transfer canopy models, SAIL and the two-layer Markov-Chain Canopy Reflectance Model (MCRM), were coupled with in situ leaf optical properties to simulate canopy-level spectral band ratio vegetation indices with the focus on the photochemical reflectance index in a cornfield. In situ hyperspectral measurements were made at both leaf and canopy levels. Leaf optical properties were obtained from both sunlit and shaded leaves. Canopy reflectance was acquired for eight different relative azimuth angles (psi) at three different view zenith angles (Theta (sub v)), and later used to validate model outputs. Field observations of photochemical reflectance index (PRI) for sunlit leaves exhibited lower values than shaded leaves, indicating higher light stress. Canopy PRI expressed obvious sensitivity to viewing geometry, as a function of both Theta (sub v) and psi . Overall, simulations from MCRM exhibited better agreements with in situ values than SAIL. When using only sunlit leaves as input, the MCRM-simulated PRI values showed satisfactory correlation and RMSE, as compared to in situ values. However, the performance of the MCRM model was significantly improved after defining a lower canopy layer comprised of shaded leaves beneath the upper sunlit leaf layer. Four other widely used band ratio vegetation indices were also studied and compared with the PRI results. MCRM simulations were able to generate satisfactory simulations for these other four indices when using only sunlit leaves as input; but unlike PRI, adding shaded leaves did not improve the performance of MCRM. These results support the hypothesis that the PRI is sensitive to physiological dynamics while the others detect static factors related to canopy structure. Sensitivity analysis was performed on MCRM in order to better understand the effects of structure related parameters on the PRI simulations. Leaf area index (LAI) showed the most significant impact on MCRM-simulated PRI among the parameters studied. This research shows the importance of hyperspectral and narrow band sensor studies, and especially the necessity of including the green wavelengths (e.g., 531 nm) on satellites proposing to monitor carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Cheng, Yen-Ben (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc. TN, United States)
Middleton, Elizabeth M. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Huemmrich, Karl F. (Maryland Univ. Baltimore County Baltimore, MD, United States)
Zhang, Qingyuan (Maryland Univ. Baltimore County Baltimore, MD, United States)
Campbell, Petya K. E. (Maryland Univ. Baltimore County Baltimore, MD, United States)
Corp, Lawrence A. (Sigma Space, Inc. Lanham, MD, United States)
Russ, Andrew L. (Agricultural Research Service Beltsville, MD, United States)
Kustas, William P. (Agricultural Research Service Beltsville, MD, United States)
Date Acquired
August 25, 2013
Publication Date
September 1, 2010
Publication Information
Publication: Ecological Informatics
Volume: 5
ISSN: 1574-9541
Subject Category
Life Sciences (General)
Report/Patent Number
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