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A Piezoelectric PZT Ceramic Mulitlayer Stack for Energy Harvesting Under Dynamic ForcesPiezoelectric energy harvesting transducers (PEHTs) are commonly used in motion/vibration energy scavenging devices. To date, most researchers have focused on energy harvesting at narrow bandwidths around the mechanical resonance frequency, and most piezoelectric harvesting devices reported in the literature have very low effective piezoelectric coefficient (d(sub eff)) (< 10(exp 4) pC/N). For instance, more than 80% of PEHT related papers are on transverse "31" mode cantilever beam type PEHTs (CBPEHTs) having piezoelectric coefficients of about 100 pC/N. The level of harvested electrical power for CBPEHTs is on the order of microW even at resonance mode. In order to harvest more electrical energy across broader bandwidth, high effective piezoelectric coefficient structures are needed. In this study, we investigate a "33" longitudinal mode, piezoelectric PZT ceramic multilayer stack (PZT-Stack) with high effective piezoelectric coefficient for high-performance PEHTs. The PZT-Stack is composed of 300 layers of 0.1 mm thick PZT plates, with overall dimensions of 32.4 mm X 7.0 mm X 7.0 mm. Experiments were carried out with dynamic forces in a broad bandwidth ranging from 0.5 Hz to 25 kHz. The measured results show that the effective piezoelectric coefficient of the PZT-stack is about 1 X 10(exp 5) pC/N at off-resonance frequencies and 1.39 X 10(exp 6) pC/N at resonance, which is order of magnitude larger than that of traditional PEHTs. The effective piezoelectric coefficients (d(sub eff)) do not change significantly with applied dynamic forces having root mean square (RMS) values ranging from 1 N to 40 N. In resonance mode, 231 mW of electrical power was harvested at 2479 Hz with a dynamic force of 11.6 N(sub rms), and 7.6 mW of electrical power was generated at a frequency of 2114 Hz with 1 N(sub rms) dynamic force. In off-resonance mode, an electrical power of 18.7 mW was obtained at 680 Hz with a 40 N(sub rms) dynamic force. A theoretical model of energy harvesting for the PZT-Stack is established. The modeled results matched well with experimental measurements. This study demonstrated that high effective piezoelectric coefficient structures enable PEHTs to harvest more electrical energy from mechanical vibrations or motions, suggesting an effective design for high-performance low-footprint PEHTs with potential applications in military, aerospace, and portable electronics. In addition, this study provides a route for using piezoelectric multilayer stacks for active or semi-active adaptive control to damp, harvest or transform unwanted dynamic vibrations into useful electrical energy.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Xu, Tian-Bing (National Inst. of Aerospace Associates Hampton, VA, United States)
Siochi, Emilie J. (NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Kang, Jin Ho (National Inst. of Aerospace Associates Hampton, VA, United States)
Zuo, Lei (State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, NY, United States)
Zhou, Wanlu (State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, NY, United States)
Tang, Xiudong (State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, NY, United States)
Jiang, Xiaoning (North Carolina State Univ. Raleigh, NC, United States)
Date Acquired
August 25, 2013
Publication Date
August 28, 2011
Subject Category
Solid-State Physics
Report/Patent Number
Meeting Information
ASME 2011 Design Engineering and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE 2011)(Washington, DC)
Funding Number(s)
WBS: WBS 432938.
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