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The HART II International Workshop: An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art in Comprehensive Code PredictionSignificant advancements in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and their coupling with computational structural dynamics (CSD, or comprehensive codes) for rotorcraft applications have been achieved recently. Despite this, CSD codes with their engineering level of modeling the rotor blade dynamics, the unsteady sectional aerodynamics and the vortical wake are still the workhorse for the majority of applications. This is especially true when a large number of parameter variations is to be performed and their impact on performance, structural loads, vibration and noise is to be judged in an approximate yet reliable and as accurate as possible manner. In this article, the capabilities of such codes are evaluated using the HART II International Workshop database, focusing on a typical descent operating condition which includes strong blade-vortex interactions. A companion article addresses the CFD/CSD coupled approach. Three cases are of interest: the baseline case and two cases with 3/rev higher harmonic blade root pitch control (HHC) with different control phases employed. One setting is for minimum blade-vortex interaction noise radiation and the other one for minimum vibration generation. The challenge is to correctly predict the wake physics-especially for the cases with HHC-and all the dynamics, aerodynamics, modifications of the wake structure and the aero-acoustics coming with it. It is observed that the comprehensive codes used today have a surprisingly good predictive capability when they appropriately account for all of the physics involved. The minimum requirements to obtain these results are outlined.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
vanderWall, Berend G. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt Goettingen, Germany)
Lim, Joon W. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Smith, Marilyn J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech. Atlanta, GA, United States)
Jung, Sung N. (Konkuk Univ. Seoul, Korea, Republic of)
Bailly, Joelle (Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aeronautiques France)
Baeder, James D. (Maryland Univ. College Park, MD, United States)
Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr. (NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Date Acquired
May 23, 2014
Publication Date
September 1, 2013
Publication Information
Publication: CEAS Aeronautical Journal: An Official Journal of the Council of European Aerospace Societies
Volume: 4
Issue: 3
Subject Category
Report/Patent Number
Meeting Information
Annual Forum of the American Helicopter Society (AHS)(Fort Worth, TX)
Funding Number(s)
WBS: WBS 380046.
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