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Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in ISS Crews - The Ocular Health Study
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Author and Affiliation:
Otto, C.(Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX, United States)
Barr, Y.(Texas Univ. Medical Branch, Houston, TX, United States)
Platts, S.(NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States)
Ploutz-Snyder, R.(Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX, United States)
Sargsyan, A.(Wyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group, Houston, TX, United States)
Alexander, D.(NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States)
Riascos, R.(Texas Univ. Health Science Center, Houston, TX, United States)
Gibson, C.(Coastal Eye Associates, Houston, TX, United States)
Patel, N.(Houston Univ., Houston, TX, United States)
Abstract: The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is currently NASA's number one human space flight risk. The syndrome, which is related to microgravity exposure, manifests with changes in visual acuity (hyperopic shifts, scotomas), changes in eye structure (optic disc edema, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, globe flattening, and dilated optic nerve sheaths), and in some cases with documented increased intracranial pressure (ICP) postflight. While the eye appears to be the main affected end organ of this syndrome, the ocular effects are thought to be related to underlying changes in the vascular system and the central nervous system. The leading hypotheses for the development of VIIP involve microgravity-induced head-ward fluid shifts along with a loss of gravity-assisted drainage of venous blood from the brain, leading to cephalic congestion, decreased CSF resorption and increased ICP. Since 70% of ISS crewmembers have manifested clinical signs or symptoms of the VIIP syndrome, it is assumed that the majority have some degree of ICP elevation in-flight compared to the ground. Prolonged elevations of ICP can cause long-term reduced visual acuity and loss of peripheral visual fields, and have been reported to cause mild cognitive impairment in the analog terrestrial population of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH). These potentially irreversible health consequences underscore the importance of identifying the factors that lead to this syndrome and mitigating them.
Publication Date: Jan 13, 2015
Document ID:
20140013306
(Acquired Jan 29, 2015)
Subject Category: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
Report/Patent Number: JSC-CN-32164
Document Type: Conference Paper
Meeting Information: NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop; 13-15 Jan. 2015; Galveston, TX; United States
Meeting Sponsor: NASA; Washington, DC, United States
Financial Sponsor: NASA Johnson Space Center; Houston, TX, United States
Organization Source: NASA Johnson Space Center; Houston, TX, United States
Description: 1p; In English
Distribution Limits: Unclassified; Publicly available; Unlimited
Rights: Copyright; Public use permitted
NASA Terms: PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS; EYE (ANATOMY); HEALTH; SPACECREWS; OCULAR CIRCULATION; INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE; VISUAL ACUITY; AEROSPACE MEDICINE; FLUID SHIFTS (BIOLOGY); PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; MICROGRAVITY; INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION; ETIOLOGY; MANNED SPACE FLIGHT; RISK; PERIPHERAL VISION; PREFLIGHT ANALYSIS; POSTFLIGHT ANALYSIS; NASA SPACE PROGRAMS; IN VITRO METHODS AND TESTS; COUNTERMEASURES; SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS; INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE
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