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Modeling Operations Costs for Human Exploration ArchitecturesOperations and support (O&S) costs for human spaceflight have not received the same attention in the cost estimating community as have development costs. This is unfortunate as O&S costs typically comprise a majority of life-cycle costs (LCC) in such programs as the International Space Station (ISS) and the now-cancelled Constellation Program. Recognizing this, the Constellation Program and NASA HQs supported the development of an O&S cost model specifically for human spaceflight. This model, known as the Exploration Architectures Operations Cost Model (ExAOCM), provided the operations cost estimates for a variety of alternative human missions to the moon, Mars, and Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) in architectural studies. ExAOCM is philosophically based on the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) concepts of operational nodes, systems, operational functions, and milestones. This paper presents some of the historical background surrounding the development of the model, and discusses the underlying structure, its unusual user interface, and lastly, previous examples of its use in the aforementioned architectural studies.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
External Source(s)
Shishko, Robert
(Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech. Pasadena, CA, United States)
Date Acquired
May 13, 2015
Publication Date
September 10, 2013
Subject Category
Lunar And Planetary Science And Exploration
Economics And Cost Analysis
Computer Programming And Software
Meeting Information
AIAA SPACE 2013 Conference & Exposition(San Diego, CA)
Distribution Limits
cost estimating
Constellation Program
human spaceflight

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