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Climate Trends in the Arctic as Observed from SpaceThe Arctic is a region in transformation. Warming in the region has been amplified, as expected from ice-albedo feedback effects, with the rate of warming observed to be approx. 0.60+/-0.07 C/decade in the Arctic (>64degN) compared to approx. 0.17 C/decade globally during the last three decades. This increase in surface temperature is manifested in all components of the cryosphere. In particular, the sea ice extent has been declining at the rate of approx. 3.8%/decade, whereas the perennial ice (represented by summer ice minimum) is declining at a much greater rate of approx.11.5%/decade. Spring snow cover has also been observed to be declining by −2.12%/decade for the period 1967-2012. The Greenland ice sheet has been losing mass at the rate of approx. 34.0Gt/year (sea level equivalence of 0.09 mm/year) during the period from 1992 to 2011, but for the period 2002-2011, a higher rate of mass loss of approx. 215 Gt/year has been observed. Also, the mass of glaciers worldwide declined at the rate of 226 Gt/year from 1971 to 2009 and 275 Gt/year from 1993 to 2009. Increases in permafrost temperature have also been measured in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere while a thickening of the active layer that overlies permafrost and a thinning of seasonally frozen ground has also been reported. To gain insight into these changes, comparative analysis with trends in clouds, albedo, and the Arctic Oscillation is also presented.
Document ID
20150023363
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
External Source(s)
Authors
Comiso, Josefino C. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD United States)
Hall, Dorothy K. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD United States)
Date Acquired
December 18, 2015
Publication Date
May 1, 2014
Publication Information
Publication: WIREs Climate Change
Volume: 5
Issue: 3
Subject Category
Meteorology and Climatology
Report/Patent Number
GSFC-E-DAA-TN21913
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Other
Keywords
arctic
ice sheet
climate