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Evidence Report: Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle EventsCrew health and performance may be impacted by a major solar particle event (SPE), multiple SPEs, or the cumulative effect of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and SPEs. Beyond low-Earth orbit, the protection of the Earth's magnetosphere is no longer available, such that increased shielding and protective mechanisms are necessary in order to prevent acute radiation sickness and impacts to mission success or crew survival. While operational monitoring and shielding are expected to minimize radiation exposures, there are EVA scenarios outside of low-Earth orbit where the risk of prodromal effects, including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and fatigue, as well as skin injury and depletion of the blood-forming organs (BFO), may occur. There is a reasonable concern that a compromised immune system due to high skin doses from a SPE or due to synergistic space flight factors (e.g., microgravity) may lead to increased risk to the BFO. The primary data available at present are derived from analyses of medical patients and persons accidentally exposed to acute, high doses of low-linear energy transfer (LET) (or terrestrial) radiation. Data more specific to the space flight environment must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of increase of this risk and to develop appropriate protection strategies. In particular, information addressing the distinct differences between solar proton exposures and terrestrial exposure scenarios, including radiation quality, dose-rate effects, and non-uniform dose distributions, is required for accurate risk estimation.
Document ID
Acquisition Source
Johnson Space Center
Document Type
Carnell, Lisa
(NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Blattnig, Steve
(NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Hu, Shaowen
(Wyle Labs., Inc. Houston, TX, United States)
Huff, Janice
(Universities Space Research Association Houston, TX, United States)
Kim, Myung-Hee
(Wyle Labs., Inc. Houston, TX, United States)
Norman, Ryan
(NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Patel, Zarana
(Wyle Labs., Inc. Houston, TX, United States)
Simonsen, Lisa
(NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Wu, Honglu
(NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, TX, United States)
Date Acquired
March 25, 2016
Publication Date
January 1, 2016
Subject Category
Space Radiation
Report/Patent Number
Distribution Limits
Public Use Permitted.
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