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Total Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosol Optical Depths and Implications for Global Climate ChangeUnderstanding the cooling effect of recent volcanoes is of particular interest in the context of the post-2000 slowing of the rate of global warming. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth above 15 km have demonstrated that small-magnitude volcanic eruptions substantially perturb incoming solar radiation. Here we use lidar, Aerosol Robotic Network, and balloon-borne observations to provide evidence that currently available satellite databases neglect substantial amounts of volcanic aerosol between the tropopause and 15 km at middle to high latitudes and therefore underestimate total radiative forcing resulting from the recent eruptions. Incorporating these estimates into a simple climate model, we determine the global volcanic aerosol forcing since 2000 to be 0.19 +/- 0.09W/sq m. This translates into an estimated global cooling of 0.05 to 0.12 C. We conclude that recent volcanic events are responsible for more post-2000 cooling than is implied by satellite databases that neglect volcanic aerosol effects below 15 km.
Document ID
20160004995
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
External Source(s)
Authors
Ridley, D. A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech. Cambridge, MA, United States)
Solomon, S. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech. Cambridge, MA, United States)
Barnes, J. E. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hilo, HI, United States)
Burlakov, V. D. (Academy of Sciences (Russia) Tomsk, Russian Federation)
Deshler, T. (Wyoming Univ. Laramie, WY, United States)
Dolgii, S. I. (Academy of Sciences (Russia) Tomsk, Russian Federation)
Herber, A. B. (Alfred-Wegener-Inst. for Polar and Marine Research Bremerhaven, Germany)
Nagai, T. (Meteorological Research Inst. Tsukuba, Japan)
Neely, R. R., III (National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, CO, United States)
Nevzorov, A. V. (Academy of Sciences (Russia) Tomsk, Russian Federation)
Ritter, C. (Alfred-Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research Potsdam, Germany)
Sakai, T. (Meteorological Research Inst. Tsukuba, Japan)
Santer, B. D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Livermore, CA, United States)
Sato, M. (Columbia Univ. New York, NY, United States)
Schmidt, A. (Leeds Univ. United Kingdom)
Uchino, O. (Meteorological Research Inst. Tsukuba, Japan)
Vernier, J. P. (Science Systems and Applications, Inc. Hampton, VA, United States)
Date Acquired
April 12, 2016
Publication Date
October 31, 2014
Publication Information
Publication: Geophysical Research Letters
Volume: 41
Issue: 22
ISSN: 0094-8276
Subject Category
Meteorology and Climatology
Report/Patent Number
GSFC-E-DAA-TN19756
Funding Number(s)
CONTRACT_GRANT: NNL11AA00B
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Other
Keywords
aerosols
volcanoes
data bases