An Integrated Hybrid Transportation Architecture for Human Mars ExpeditionsNASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture that uses both chemical and electric propulsion systems on the same vehicle to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By applying chemical and electrical propulsion where each is most effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper presents an integrated Hybrid in-space transportation architecture for piloted missions and delivery of cargo. A concept for a Mars campaign including orbital and Mars surface missions is described in detail including a system concept of operations and conceptual design. Specific constraints, margin, and pinch points are identified for the architecture and opportunities for critical path commercial and international collaboration are discussed.
Merrill, Raymond G. (NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Chai, Patrick R. (NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Qu, Min (Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc. Hampton, VA, United States)