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Milagro Limits and HAWC Sensitivity for the Rate-Density of Evaporating Primordial Black HolesPrimordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of approx.5.0 x 10(exp 14) g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV-TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Abdo, A. A. (Michigan State Univ. East Lansing, MI, United States)
Abeysekara, A. U. (Michigan State Univ. East Lansing, MI, United States)
Alfaro, R. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Mexico City, Mexico)
Allen, B. T. (California Univ. Irvine, CA, United States)
Alvarez, C. (Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas Chiapas, Mexico)
Alvarez, J. D. (Michoacana Univ. Morelia Michoacan, Mexico)
Arceo, R. (Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas Chiapas, Mexico)
Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C. (Michoacana Univ. Morelia Michoacan, Mexico)
Aune, T. (California Univ. Santa Cruz, CA, United States)
Ayala Solares, H. A. (Michigan Technological Univ. Houghton, MI, United States)
Barber, A. S. (Utah Univ. Salt Lake City, UT, United States)
Baughman, B. M. (Maryland Univ. College Park, MD, United States)
Bautista-Elivar, N. (Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca Pachuca, Mexico)
Becerra Gonzalez, J. (Maryland Univ. College Park, MD, United States)
Belmont, E. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Mexico City, Mexico)
BenZvi, S. Y. (Rochester Univ. NY, United States)
Berley, D. (Maryland Univ. College Park, MD, United States)
Rosales, M. Bonilla (Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica Tonantzintla, Mexico)
Braun, J. (Maryland Univ. College Park, MD, United States)
Hays, E. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Date Acquired
August 12, 2016
Publication Date
November 5, 2014
Publication Information
Publication: Astroparticle Physics
Volume: 64
ISSN: 0927-6505
Subject Category
Report/Patent Number
Distribution Limits
HAWC Milagro Very High
Primordial Black Holes
Energy Bursts