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Stratospheric Aerosol--Observations, Processes, and Impact on ClimateInterest in stratospheric aerosol and its role in climate have increased over the last decade due to the observed increase in stratospheric aerosol since 2000 and the potential for changes in the sulfur cycle induced by climate change. This review provides an overview about the advances in stratospheric aerosol research since the last comprehensive assessment of stratospheric aerosol was published in 2006. A crucial development since 2006 is the substantial improvement in the agreement between in situ and space-based inferences of stratospheric aerosol properties during volcanically quiescent periods. Furthermore, new measurement systems and techniques, both in situ and space based, have been developed for measuring physical aerosol properties with greater accuracy and for characterizing aerosol composition. However, these changes induce challenges to constructing a long-term stratospheric aerosol climatology. Currently, changes in stratospheric aerosol levels less than 20% cannot be confidently quantified. The volcanic signals tend to mask any nonvolcanically driven change, making them difficult to understand. While the role of carbonyl sulfide as a substantial and relatively constant source of stratospheric sulfur has been confirmed by new observations and model simulations, large uncertainties remain with respect to the contribution from anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions. New evidence has been provided that stratospheric aerosol can also contain small amounts of nonsulfatematter such as black carbon and organics. Chemistry-climate models have substantially increased in quantity and sophistication. In many models the implementation of stratospheric aerosol processes is coupled to radiation and/or stratospheric chemistry modules to account for relevant feedback processes.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
External Source(s)
Kresmer, Stefanie
(Bodeker Scientific Alexandra, New Zealand)
Thomason, Larry W.
(NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
von Hobe, Marc
(Forschungszentrum Juelich G.m.b.H. Juelich, Germany)
Hermann, Markus
(Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research Leipzig, Germany)
Deshler, Terry
(Wyoming Univ. Laramie, WY, United States)
Timmreck, Claudia
(Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Meteorologie Hamburg, Germany)
Toohey, Matthew
(Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Meteorologie Hamburg, Germany)
Stenke, Andrea
(Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zurich, Switzerland)
Schwarz, Joshua P.
(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, CO, United States)
Weigel, Ralf
(Mainz Univ. Germany)
Fueglistaler, Stephan
(Princeton Univ. Princeton, NJ, United States)
Prata, Fred J.
(Nicarnica Aviation Keller, Norway)
Vernier, Jean-Paul
(NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Schlager, Hans
(Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. Cologne, Germany)
Barnes, John E.
(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hilo, HI, United States)
Antuna-Marrero, Juan-Carlos
(Meteorological Inst. of Cuba Camaguey, Republic of Cuba)
Fairlie, Duncan
(NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Palm, Mathias
(Bremen Univ. Germany)
Mahieu, Emmanuel
(Liege Univ. Belgium)
Notholt, Justus
(Bremen Univ. Germany)
Rex, Markus
(Alfred-Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research Potsdam, Germany)
Bingen, Christine
(Royal Belgian Inst. for Space Aeronomy Brussels, Belgium)
Vanhellemont, Filip
(Royal Belgian Inst. for Space Aeronomy Brussels, Belgium)
Bourassa, Adam
(Saskatchewan Univ. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada)
Plane, John M. C.
(Leeds Univ. United Kingdom)
Klocke, Daniel
(Deutscher Wetterdienst Offenbach am Main, Germany)
Carn, Simon A.
(Michigan Technological Univ. Houghton, MI, United States)
Clarisse, Lieven
(Free Univ. Brussels, Belgium)
Trickl, Thomas
(Karlsruhe Inst. fuer Technologie Karlsruhe, Germany)
Neeley, Ryan
(Leeds Univ. United Kingdom)
James, Alexander D.
(Leeds Univ. United Kingdom)
Rieger, Landon
(Saskatchewan Univ. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada)
Wilson, James C.
(Denver Univ. Denver, CO, United States)
Meland, Brian
(Denver Univ. Denver, CO, United States)
Date Acquired
September 1, 2016
Publication Date
May 7, 2016
Publication Information
Publication: Reviews of Geophysics
Volume: 54
Issue: 2
Subject Category
Meteorology And Climatology
Report/Patent Number
Funding Number(s)
WBS: WBS 479717.
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