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Accounting for the Effects of Surface BRDF on Satellite Cloud and Trace-Gas Retrievals: A New Approach Based on Geometry-Dependent Lambertian-Equivalent Reflectivity Applied to OMI AlgorithmsMost satellite nadir ultraviolet and visible cloud, aerosol, and trace-gas algorithms make use of climatological surface reflectivity databases. For example, cloud and NO2 retrievals for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) use monthly gridded surface reflectivity climatologies that do not depend upon the observation geometry. In reality, reflection of incoming direct and diffuse solar light from land or ocean surfaces is sensitive to the sun-sensor geometry. This dependence is described by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). To account for the BRDF, we propose to use a new concept of geometry-dependent Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (LER). Implementation within the existing OMI cloud and NO2 retrieval infrastructure requires changes only to the input surface reflectivity database. The geometry-dependent LER is calculated using a vector radiative transfer model with high spatial resolution BRDF information from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over land and the Cox-Munk slope distribution over ocean with a contribution from water-leaving radiance. We compare the geometry-dependent and climatological LERs for two wavelengths, 354 and 466 nm, that are used in OMI cloud algorithms to derive cloud fractions. A detailed comparison of the cloud fractions and pressures derived with climatological and geometry-dependent LERs is carried out. Geometry-dependent LER and corresponding retrieved cloud products are then used as inputs to our OMI NO2 algorithm. We find that replacing the climatological OMI-based LERs with geometry-dependent LERs can increase NO2 vertical columns by up to 50% in highly polluted areas; the differences include both BRDF effects and biases between the MODIS and OMI-based surface reflectance data sets. Only minor changes to NO2 columns (within 5 %) are found over unpolluted and overcast areas.
Document ID
20170001644
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
External Source(s)
Authors
Vasilkov, Alexander
(Science Systems and Applications, Inc. Lanham, MD, United States)
Qin, Wenhan
(Science Systems and Applications, Inc. Lanham, MD, United States)
Krotkov, Nickolay
(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Lamsal, Lok
(Universities Space Research Association Columbia, MD, United States)
Spurr, Robert
(RT Solutions, Inc. Cambridge, MA, United States)
Haffner, David
(Science Systems and Applications, Inc. Lanham, MD, United States)
Joiner, Joanna
(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Yang, Eun-Su
(Science Systems and Applications, Inc. Lanham, MD, United States)
Marchenko, Sergey
(Science Systems and Applications, Inc. Lanham, MD, United States)
Date Acquired
February 17, 2017
Publication Date
January 27, 2017
Publication Information
Publication: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
Volume: 10
Issue: 1
Subject Category
Numerical Analysis
Earth Resources And Remote Sensing
Meteorology And Climatology
Report/Patent Number
GSFC-E-DAA-TN39348
Funding Number(s)
CONTRACT_GRANT: NNG11HP16A
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Other
Keywords
Lambert-equivalent reflectivity
OMI algorithms
bidirectional reflectance distribution function
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