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Description and Evaluation of the Multiscale Online Nonhydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry Model (NMMB-MONARCH) Version 1.0: Gas-Phase Chemistry at Global ScaleThis paper presents a comprehensive description and benchmark evaluation of the tropospheric gas-phase chemistry component of the Multiscale Online Nonhydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry model (NMMBMONARCH), formerly known as NMMB/BSC-CTM, that can be run on both regional and global domains. Here, we provide an extensive evaluation of a global annual cycle simulation using a variety of background surface stations (EMEP, WDCGG and CASTNET), ozonesondes (WOUDC, CMD and SHADOZ), aircraft data (MOZAIC and several campaigns), and satellite observations (SCIAMACHY and MOPITT).We also include an extensive discussion of our results in comparison to other state-of-the-art models. We note that in this study, we omitted aerosol processes and some natural emissions (lightning and volcano emissions). The model shows a realistic oxidative capacity across the globe. The seasonal cycle for CO is fairly well represented at different locations (correlations around 0.3-0.7 in surface concentrations), although concentrations are underestimated in spring and winter in the Northern Hemisphere, and are overestimated throughout the year at 800 and 500 hPa in the Southern Hemisphere. Nitrogen species are well represented in almost all locations, particularly NO2 in Europe (root mean square error - RMSE - below 5 ppb). The modeled vertical distributions of NOx and HNO3 are in excellent agreement with the observed values and the spatial and seasonal trends of tropospheric NO2 columns correspond well to observations from SCIAMACHY, capturing the highly polluted areas and the biomass burning cycle throughout the year. Over Asia, the model underestimates NOx from March to August, probably due to an underestimation of NOx emissions in the region. Overall, the comparison of the modeled CO and NO2 with MOPITT and SCIAMACHY observations emphasizes the need for more accurate emission rates from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources (i.e., specification of temporal variability).
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
External Source(s)
Badia, Alba (Barcelona Supercomputing Center Barcelona, Spain)
Jorba, Oriol (Barcelona Supercomputing Center Barcelona, Spain)
Voulgarakis, Apostolos (Imperial Coll. of London London, United Kingdom)
Dabdub, Donald (California Univ. Irvine, CA, United States)
Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez (Columbia Univ. New York, NY, United States)
Hilboll, Andreas (Bremen Univ. Germany)
Goncalves, Maria (Barcelona Supercomputing Center Barcelona, Spain)
Janjic, Zavisa (National Centers for Environmental Prediction College Park, MD, United States)
Date Acquired
February 17, 2017
Publication Date
February 10, 2017
Publication Information
Publication: Geoscientific Model Development
Volume: 10
Issue: 2
Subject Category
Computer Programming and Software
Meteorology and Climatology
Report/Patent Number
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits
atmospheric chemistry
nitrogen oxides
position (location)
vertical distribution
Southern Hemisphere
biomass burning