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Rapidly Rising Transients in the Supernova - Superluminous Supernova GapWe present observations of four rapidly rising (t(sub rise) approximately equals 10 days) transients with peak luminosities between those of supernovae (SNe) and superluminous SNe (M(sub peak) approximately equals -20) - one discovered and followed by the PalomarTransient Factory (PTF) and three by the Supernova Legacy Survey. The light curves resemble those of SN 2011kl, recently shown to be associated with an ultra-long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), though no GRB was seen to accompany our SNe. The rapid rise to a luminous peak places these events in a unique part of SN phase space, challenging standard SN emission mechanisms. Spectra of the PTF event formally classify it as an SN II due to broad H alpha emission, but an unusual absorption feature, which can be interpreted as either high velocity H alpha (though deeper than in previously known cases) or Si II (as seen in SNe Ia), is also observed. We find that existing models of white dwarf detonations, CSM interaction, shock breakout in a wind (or steeper CSM), and magnetar spin down cannot readily explain the observations. We consider the possibility that a Type 1.5 SN scenario could be the origin of our events. More detailed models for these kinds of transients and more constraining observations of future such events should help to better determine their nature.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Arcavi, Iair (Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc. Goleta, CA, United States)
Wolf, William M. (California Univ. Santa Barbara, CA, United States)
Howell, D. Andrew (Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc. Goleta, CA, United States)
Bildsten, Lars (California Univ. Santa Barbara, CA, United States)
Leloudas, Giorgos (Weizmann Inst. of Science Rehovot, Israel)
Hardin, Delphine (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Paris, France)
Prajs, Szymon (Southampton Univ. United Kingdom)
Perley, Daniel A. (Copenhagen Univ. Denmark)
Svirski, Gilad (Hebrew Univ. Jerusalem, Israel)
Cenko, S. Bradley (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD United States)
Date Acquired
April 17, 2017
Publication Date
February 25, 2016
Publication Information
Publication: The Astrophysical Journal
Volume: 819
Issue: 1
ISSN: 0004-637X
Subject Category
Report/Patent Number
Distribution Limits
supernovae: individual (PTF10iam