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Optical and X-Ray Early Follow-Up of ANTARES Neutrino AlertsHigh-energy neutrinos could be produced in the interaction of charged cosmic rays with matter or radiation surrounding astrophysical sources. Even with the recent detection of extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube experiment, no astrophysical neutrinosource has yet been discovered. Transient sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, or active galactic nuclei are promising candidates. Multi-messenger programs offer a unique opportunity to detect these transient sources. By combining the information provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope with information coming from other observatories, the probability of detecting a source is enhanced, allowing the possibility of identifyinga neutrino progenitor from a single detected event. A method based on optical and X-ray follow-ups of high-energy neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This method does not require any assumptions on the relation between neutrino and photon spectra other than time-correlation. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROTand ROTSE) and the Swift-XRT with a delay of only a few seconds after a neutrino detection, and is therefore well-suited to search for fast transient sources. To identify an optical or Xraycounterpart to a neutrino signal, the images provided by the follow-up observations areanalysed with dedicated pipelines. A total of 42 alerts with optical and 7 alerts with X-ray images taken with a maximum delay of 24 hours after the neutrino trigger have been analyzed. No optical or X-ray counterparts associated to the neutrino triggers have been found, and upper limits on transient source magnitudes have been derived. The probability to reject the gamma-ray burst origin hypothesis has been computed for each alert.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Adrian-Martinez, S.
(Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Valencia, Spain)
Ageron, M.
(Aix-Marseille Univ. Marseille, France)
Albert, A.
(Haute-Alsace Univ. Mulhouse, France)
Samarai, I. Al
(Aix-Marseille Univ. Marseille, France)
Andre, M.
(Technical Univ. Catalonia, Spain)
Anton, G.
(Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. Erlangen, Germany)
Ardid, M.
(Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Valencia, Spain)
Aubert, J.-J.
(Aix-Marseille Univ. Marseille, France)
Baret, B.
(Universite Paris Diderot Paris, France)
Barrios-Marti, J.
(Valencia Univ. Spain)
Gehrels, N.
(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD United States)
Date Acquired
April 20, 2017
Publication Date
February 24, 2016
Publication Information
Publication: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
Volume: 2016
ISSN: 1475-7508
Subject Category
Report/Patent Number
Distribution Limits
X-ray telescopes
neutrino astronomy
gamma ray burst experiments
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