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Beyond 3-D: The New Spectrum of Lidar Applications for Earth and Ecological SciencesCapturing and quantifying the world in three dimensions (x,y,z) using light detection and ranging (lidar) technology drives fundamental advances in the Earth and Ecological Sciences (EES). However, additional lidar dimensions offer the possibility to transcend basic 3-D mapping capabilities, including i) the physical time (t) dimension from repeat lidar acquisition and ii) laser return intensity (LRIλ) data dimension based on the brightness of single- or multi-wavelength (λ) laser returns. The additional dimensions thus add to the x,y, and z dimensions to constitute the five dimensions of lidar (x,y,z, t, LRIλ1... λn). This broader spectrum of lidar dimensionality has already revealed new insights across multiple EES topics, and will enable a wide range of new research and applications. Here, we review recent advances based on repeat lidar collections and analysis of LRI data to highlight novel applications of lidar remote sensing beyond 3-D. Our review outlines the potential and current challenges of time and LRI information from lidar sensors to expand the scope of research applications and insights across the full range of EES applications.
Document ID
Acquisition Source
Goddard Space Flight Center
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Eitel, Jan U. H.
(Idaho Univ. Moscow, ID, United States)
Hofle, Bernhard
(Heidelberg Univ. Heidelberg, Germany)
Vierling, Lee A.
(Idaho Univ. Moscow, ID, United States)
Abellan, Antonio
(Lausanne Univ. Switzerland)
Asner, Gregory P.
(Carnegie Institution for Science Stanford, CA, United States)
Deems, Jeffrey S.
(Colorado Univ. Boulder, CO, United States)
Glennie, Craig L.
(Houston Univ. TX, United States)
Joerg, Phillip C.
(Zurich Univ. Switzerland)
LeWinter, Adam L.
(Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. Hanover, NH, United States)
Magney, Troy S.
(Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech. Pasadena, CA, United States)
Mandlburger, Gottfried
(Wien Univ. Austria)
Morton, Douglas C.
(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD United States)
Muller, Jorg
(National Park Administration of Bavarian Forest Grafenau, Germany)
Vierling, Kerri
(Idaho Univ. Moscow, ID, United States)
Date Acquired
May 15, 2017
Publication Date
September 14, 2016
Publication Information
Publication: Remote Sensing of Environment
Publisher: Elsevier
Volume: 186
ISSN: 0034-4257
e-ISSN: 1879-0704
Subject Category
Earth Resources And Remote Sensing
Report/Patent Number
Funding Number(s)
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