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Band-to-Band Misregistration of the Images of MODIS Onboard Calibrators and Its Impact on CalibrationThe Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard Terra and Aqua satellites are radiometrically calibrated on-orbit with a set of onboard calibrators (OBCs), including a solar diffuser, a blackbody, and a space view port through which the detectors can view the dark space. As a whisk-broom scanning spectroradiometer, thirty-six MODIS spectral bands are assembled in the along-scan direction on four focal plane assemblies (FPAs). These bands capture images of the same target sequentially with the motion of a scan mirror. Then the images are coregistered onboard by delaying the appropriate band-dependent amount of time, depending on the band locations on the FPA. While this coregistration mechanismis functioning well for the far-field remote targets such as earth view scenes or the moon, noticeable band-to-band misregistration in the along-scan direction has been observed for near field targets, particularly in OBCs. In this paper, the misregistration phenomenon is presented and analyzed. It is concluded that the root cause of the misregistration is that the rotating element of the instrument, the scan mirror, is displaced from the focus of the telescope primary mirror. The amount of the misregistrationis proportional to the band location on the FPA and is inversely proportional to the distance between the target and the scan mirror. The impact of this misregistration on the calibration of MODIS bands is discussed. In particular, the calculation of the detector gain coefficient m1of bands 8-16 (412 nm 870 nm) is improved by up to 1.5% for Aqua MODIS.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Wang, Zhipeng (Science Systems and Applications, Inc. Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Xiong, Xiaoxiong (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD United States)
Date Acquired
June 12, 2017
Publication Date
January 5, 2017
Publication Information
Publication: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Volume: 55
Issue: 4
ISSN: 0196-2892
Subject Category
Instrumentation and Photography
Report/Patent Number
Funding Number(s)
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