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Satellite Sensor Requirements for Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables of Coastal EcosystemsThe biodiversity and high productivity of coastal terrestrial and aquatic habitats are the foundation for important benefits to human societies around the world. These globally distributed habitats need frequent and broad systematic assessments, but field surveys only cover a small fraction of these areas. Satellite-based sensors can repeatedly record the visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra that contain the absorption, scattering, and fluorescence signatures of functional phytoplankton groups, colored dissolved matter, and particulate matter near the surface ocean, and of biologically structured habitats (floating and emergent vegetation, benthic habitats like coral, seagrass, and algae). These measures can be incorporated into Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs), including the distribution, abundance, and traits of groups of species populations, and used to evaluate habitat fragmentation. However, current and planned satellites are not designed to observe the EBVs that change rapidly with extreme tides, salinity, temperatures, storms, pollution, or physical habitat destruction over scales relevant to human activity. Making these observations requires a new generation of satellite sensors able to sample with these combined characteristics: (1) spatial resolution on the order of 30 to 100-m pixels or smaller; (2) spectral resolution on the order of 5 nm in the visible and 10 nm in the short-wave infrared spectrum (or at least two or more bands at 1,030, 1,240, 1,630, 2,125, and/or 2,260 nm) for atmospheric correction and aquatic and vegetation assessments; (3) radiometric quality with signal to noise ratios (SNR) above 800 (relative to signal levels typical of the open ocean), 14-bit digitization, absolute radiometric calibration less than 2%, relative calibration of 0.2%, polarization sensitivity less than 1%, high radiometric stability and linearity, and operations designed to minimize sunglint; and (4) temporal resolution of hours to days. We refer to these combined specifications as H4 imaging. Enabling H4 imaging is vital for the conservation and management of global biodiversity and ecosystem services, including food provisioning and water security. An agile satellite in a 3-d repeat low-Earth orbit could sample 30-km swath images of several hundred coastal habitats daily. Nine H4 satellites would provide weekly coverage of global coastal zones. Such satellite constellations are now feasible and are used in various applications.
Document ID
20180002931
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
External Source(s)
Authors
Muller-Karger, Frank E. (University of South Florida Saint Petersburg, FL, United States)
Hestir, Erin (California Univ. Merced, CA, United States)
Ade, Christiana (California Univ. Merced, CA, United States)
Turpie, Kevin (Maryland Univ. Baltimore, MD, United States)
Roberts, Dar A. (University of Southern California Santa Barbara, CA, United States)
Siegel, David (University of Southern California Santa Barbara, CA, United States)
Miller, Robert J. (University of Southern California Santa Barbara, CA, United States)
Humm, David (Johns Hopkins Univ. Laurel, MD, United States)
Izenberg, Noam (Johns Hopkins Univ. Laurel, MD, United States)
Keller, Mary (Johns Hopkins Univ. Laurel, MD, United States)
Morgan, Frank (Johns Hopkins Univ. Laurel, MD, United States)
Frouin, Robert (California Univ., San Diego La Jolla, CA, United States)
Dekker, Arnold G. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Canberra, Australia)
Gardner, Royal (Stetson Univ. De Land, FL, United States)
Goodman, James (HySpeed Computing Miami, FL, United States)
Schaeffer, Blake (Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, NC, United States)
Franz, Bryan A. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Pahlevan, Nima (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Mannino, Antonio G. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Concha, Javier A. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Ackleson, Steven G. (Naval Research Lab. Washington, DC, United States)
Cavanaugh, Kyle C. (California Univ. Los Angeles, CA, United States)
Romanou, Anastasia (Columbia Univ. New York, NY, United States)
Tzortziou, Maria (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Boss, Emmanuel S. (Maine Univ. Orono, ME, United States)
Pavlick, Ryan (California Inst. of Technology Pasadena, CA, United States)
Freeman, Anthony (California Inst. of Technology Pasadena, CA, United States)
Rousseaux, Cecile S. (Universities Space Research Association Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Dunne, John (Princeton Univ. Observatory NJ, United States)
Long, Matthew C. (University Corp. for Atmospheric Research Boulder, CO, United States)
Klein, Eduardo (Universidad Simon Bolivar Caracas, Venezuela)
McKinley, Galen A. (Columbia Univ. Palisades, NY, United States)
Goes, Joachim (Columbia Univ. Palisades, NY, United States)
Letelier, Ricardo (Oregon State Univ. Corvallis, OR, United States)
Kavanaugh, Maria (Oregon State Univ. Corvallis, OR, United States)
Roffer, Mitchell (Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Miami, FL, United States)
Bracher, Astrid (Alfred-Wegener-Inst. for Polar and Marine Research Bremerhaven, Germany)
Arrigo, Kevin R. (Stanford Univ. Stanford, CA, United States)
Dierssen, Heidi (Connecticut Univ. Groton, CT, United States)
Zhang, Xiaodong (North Dakota Univ. Grand Forks, ND, United States)
Davis, Frank W. (California Univ. Santa Barbara, CA, United States)
Best, Ben (EcoQuants Santa Barbara, CA, United States)
Guralnick, Robert (Florida Univ. Gainesville, FL, United States)
Moisan, John (NASA Wallops Flight Facility Wallops Island, VA, United States)
Sosik, Heidi M. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution MA, United States)
Kudela, Raphael (California Univ. Santa Cruz, CA, United States)
Mouw, Colleen B. (Rhode Island Univ. Kingston, RI, United States)
Barnard, Andrew H. (Wet Labs., Inc. Philomath, OR, United States)
Palacios, Sherry (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Roesler, Collin (Bowdoin Coll. Brunswick, ME, United States)
Drakou, Evangelia G. (Universiteit Twente Enschede, Netherlands)
Appeltans, Ward (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Paris, France)
Jetz, Walter (Yale Univ. New Haven, CT, United States)
Date Acquired
May 16, 2018
Publication Date
March 6, 2018
Publication Information
Publication: Ecological Applications
Volume: 28
Issue: 3
ISSN: 1051-0761
Subject Category
Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
Report/Patent Number
GSFC-E-DAA-TN56078
Funding Number(s)
CONTRACT_GRANT: NNX17AE79A
CONTRACT_GRANT: NNG11HP16A
CONTRACT_GRANT: MC15AC00006
CONTRACT_GRANT: NNX14AR62A
CONTRACT_GRANT: NNG15HQ01C
CONTRACT_GRANT: NNX16AQ34G
CONTRACT_GRANT: NNX12AD05A
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Other
Keywords
aquatic
coastal zone
vegetation
wetland
ecology
essential biodiversity variables
H4 imaging hyperspectral remote sensing