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Additive Manufacturing Development and Hot-Fire Testing of Liquid Rocket Channel Wall Nozzles Using Blown Powder Directed Energy Deposition Inconel 625 and JBK-75 AlloysAdditive manufacturing (AM) is being investigated at NASA and across much of the rocket propulsion industry as an alternate fabrication technique to create complex geometries for liquid engine components that offers schedule and cost saving opportunities. The geometries that can be created using AM offer a significant advantage over traditional techniques. Internal complexities, such as internal coolant channels for combustion chambers and nozzles that would typically require several operations to manufacture traditionally can be fabricated in one process. Additionally, the coolant channels are closed out as a part of the AM build process, eliminating the complexities of a traditional process like brazing or plating. The primary additive manufacturing technique that has been evaluated is powder bed fusion (PBF), or selective laser melting (SLM), but there is a scale limitation for this technique. There are several alternate additive manufacturing techniques that are being investigated for large-scale nozzles and chambers including directed energy deposition (DED) processes. A significant advantage of the DED processes is the ability to adapt to a robotic or gantry CNC system with a localized purge or purge chamber, allowing unlimited build volume. This paper will discuss the development and hot-fire testing of channel-cooled nozzles fabricated utilizing one form of DED called blown powder deposition. This initial development work using blown powder DED is being explored to form the entire channel wall nozzle with integral coolant channels within a single AM build. Much of this development is focused on the design and DED-fabrication of complex and thin-walled features and on characterization of the materials properties produced with this techniques in order to evolve this process. Subscale nozzles were fabricated using this DED technique and hot-fire tested in Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen (LOX/GH2) and LOX/Kerosene (LOX/RP-1) environments accumulating significant development time and cycles. The initial materials that were evaluated during this testing were high-strength nickel-based Inconel 625 and JBK-75. Further process development is being completed to increase the scale of this technology for large-scale nozzles. This paper will summarize the general design considerations for DED, specific channel-cooled nozzle design, manufacturing process development, property development, initial hot-fire testing and future developments to mature this technology for regeneratively-cooled nozzles. An overview of future development at NASA will also be discussed.
Document ID
Acquisition Source
Marshall Space Flight Center
Document Type
Conference Paper
Gradl, Paul R.
(NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL, United States)
Protz, Chris
(NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL, United States)
Wammen, Tal
(NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL, United States)
Date Acquired
September 4, 2019
Publication Date
August 19, 2019
Subject Category
Mechanical Engineering
Report/Patent Number
Meeting Information
Meeting: AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference 2019
Location: Indianapolis, IN
Country: United States
Start Date: August 19, 2019
End Date: August 22, 2019
Sponsors: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA)
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.
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