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HydrovolcanismHydrovolcanism is a common phenomena produced by the interaction of magma or magmatic heat with an external source of water, such as a surface body, an aquifer, or a glacier. The effects include hydrofracture of existing rock units in the subsurface and the formation of hyaloclastites in a subaqueous environment. Hydroexplosions originate within a few kilometers of the surface. They may be relatively small, phreatic events or devastating complex blasts. Large-scale experiments determined that the optimal mixing ratio of water to basaltic melt (thermite plus silicates) for efficient conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy is in the range of 0.1 to 0.3. Based on experimental results, eruptions can be classified as dominantly magmatic if the ratio of external water to magma is less than 0.2. Eruptions with water/melt ratios in the range of 0.2 to 1.0 are highly explosive and carry tephra in a hot vapor that contains dominantly superheated (dry) steam.
Document ID
Acquisition Source
Legacy CDMS
Document Type
Sheridan, M. F.
(Arizona State Univ. Tempe, AZ, United States)
Wohletz, K. H.
Date Acquired
August 12, 2013
Publication Date
April 1, 1985
Publication Information
Publication: NASA, Washington Repts. of Planetary Geol. and Geophys. Program
Subject Category
Accession Number
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.
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