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Exploration planning in the context of human exploration and development of the MoonIt is widely believed that the next step beyond low Earth orbit in attaining the United States' stated goal of 'Expanding human presence beyond the Earth' should be to reestablish a lunar capability, building on the Apollo program, and preparing the way for eventual human missions to Mars. The Moon offers important questions in planetary and Earth science, can provide a unique platform for making astronomical observations of high resolution and sensitivity, and can be in the development path for unlocking resources of the inner solar system to support space activities and return benefits to Earth. NASA's Office of Exploration has undertaken the planning of future lunar exploration missions with the assistance of the Solar System Exploration Division in matters dealing with the quality of scientific data and the manner in which it will be made available to the scientific community. The initial elements of the proposed program include the Lunar Scout missions, which consist of two small identical spacecraft in polar orbit around the Moon, which can accomplish most of the objectives associated with previous proposals for Lunar Polar Orbiters. These missions would be followed by 'Artemis' landers, capable of emplacing up to 200 kg payloads anywhere on the Moon. In addition, the exploration program must incorporate data obtained from other missions, including the Galileo lunar flybys, the Clementine high orbital observations, and Japanese penetrator missions. In the past year, a rather detailed plan for a 'First Lunar Outpost (FLO)' which would place 4 astronauts on the lunar surface for 45 days has been developed as a possible initial step of a renewed human exploration program. In the coming year, the FLO concept will be reviewed and evolved to become more highly integrated with planning for the initial human exploration of Mars, which could come perhaps 5 years after the reestablishment of lunar capability. Both programs could benefit from the common development of systems and subsystems, where that is sensible from a performance perspective.
Document ID
Acquisition Source
Legacy CDMS
Document Type
Conference Paper
Duke, Michael B.
(NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Houston, TX, United States)
Morrison, Donald A.
(NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Houston, TX, United States)
Date Acquired
September 6, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1993
Publication Information
Publication: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F
Subject Category
Lunar And Planetary Exploration
Accession Number
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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