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Bowles-Tatnall Wake Vortex Encounter Hazard MetricWake vortex spacing standards constrict the terminal area throughput and impose severe constraints on the overall capacity and efficiency of the National Airspace System. For more than two decades starting in the early 1990s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted extensive research on characterizing the formation and evolution of aircraft wakes. This multidisciplinary work included comprehensive field experiments (Pruis et al. 2016), flight tests (Vicroy et al. 1998), and wind tunnel tests (Rossow 1994; Chow et al. 1997). Parametric studies using large eddy simulations (Proctor 1998; Proctor et al. 2006) were conducted in order to develop fast-time models for the prediction of wake transport and decay (Ahmad et al. 2016). Substantial effort was spent on the formulation of acceptable vortex hazard metrics (Tatnall 1995; Hinton and Tatnall 1997). Several wake encounter severity metrics have been suggested in the past, which include the wake circulation strength, vortex-induced rolling moment coefficient (Clv), bank angle, and the roll control ratio (Tatnall 1995; Hinton and Tatnall 1997; Van der Geest 2012). The vortex-induced rolling moment coefficient introduced by Bowles and Tatnall (Tatnall 1995; Gloudemans et al. 2016) has been used extensively for risk and safety analysis of newly proposed air traffic management concepts and procedures. The original method of Bowles and Tatnall assumed a constant wing loading (the wing lift-curve slope, CL is constant), which resulted in an overestimation of the vortexinduced rolling moment coefficient. Bowles (2014) suggested a correction to the original method that provides more accurate values of Clv and which is also consistent with the underlying physics of the problem. The overestimation of Clv in the original method can be corrected by assuming an elliptical lift distribution. Figure 1.1 illustrates the correction in Clv achieved by the modified method.
Document ID
Acquisition Source
Langley Research Center
Document Type
Technical Memorandum (TM)
Joel Malissa
(University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)
Nashat N. Ahmad
(NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Date Acquired
July 17, 2019
Publication Date
June 1, 2019
Subject Category
Report/Patent Number
Funding Number(s)
WBS: 109492.
Distribution Limits
Public Use Permitted.
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