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Process Development and Hot-fire Testing of Additively Manufactured NASA HR-1 for Liquid Rocket Engine ApplicationsAdditive manufacturing (AM) has provided new design and manufacturing opportunities to reduce cost and schedules, consolidate parts, and optimize performance. One technique being evaluated is Laser Powder Directed Energy Deposition (LP-DED), which provides a significant increase in scale compared to Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF). NASA along with industry partners have been developing the LP-DED process to demonstrate internal channel geometry and development components for use in liquid rocket engine channel cooled nozzles. Optimized materials in the extreme high pressure and hydrogen environment for liquid rocket engines remains a key challenge. NASA has advanced an enabling material called NASA HR-1 (Hydrogen Resistant -1) as a solution using AM techniques. NASA HR-1 is a high-strength Fe-Ni superalloy designed to resist high pressure, hydrogen environment embrittlement, oxidation, and corrosion. NASA HR-1 meets materials requirements for liquid rocket engine components, including good hydrogen resistance, high conductivity, good low cycle fatigue performance, and high elongation and strength for components in high heat flux environments. Material properties and process characterization have been completed on the high density thin-wall material in addition to advancements of the supply chain. NASA has also completed fabrication of several subscale and full-scale channel wall nozzles in LP-DED NASA HR-1 and completed hot-fire testing. This includes refinement of the process to produce thin-walls and various channel geometries to meet the requirements for channel wall nozzle applications. This paper will provide an overview of the LP-DED process development, material characterization and properties, component manufacturing, and hot-fire testing. Hot-fire testing was completed for a lander-class 7K-lbf thrust chamber using Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/Methane. The design overview and results from hot-fire testing will be presented in addition to hardware development for future testing on 2K-lbf and 35k-lbf thrust chambers and large-scale manufacturing technology demonstrators.
Document ID
Acquisition Source
Marshall Space Flight Center
Document Type
Conference Paper
Paul R. Gradl
(Marshall Space Flight Center Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, United States)
Thomas Teasley
(Marshall Space Flight Center Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, United States)
Chris Protz
(Marshall Space Flight Center Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, United States)
Colton Katsarelis
(Marshall Space Flight Center Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, United States)
Po Chen
(Jacobs (United States) Dallas, Texas, United States)
Date Acquired
July 8, 2021
Subject Category
Spacecraft Propulsion And Power
Meeting Information
Meeting: AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum
Location: Virtual
Country: US
Start Date: August 9, 2021
End Date: August 11, 2021
Sponsors: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Funding Number(s)
WBS: 119991.04.01.62
Distribution Limits
Portions of document may include copyright protected material.
Technical Review
NASA Peer Committee
Additive Manufacturing
Directed Energy Deposition
Laser Powder Directed Energy Deposition
Combustion devices
rocket nozzle
channel-cooled nozzle
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